Radiographic measurement of cardiac size in laboratory mice
AbstractThis study was to establish quantitative reference range measurements that could be used to support basic data of cardiac size in the laboratory animals. Right and left lateral recumbency (R/L view) and ventral and dorsal recumbency (VD/DV view) radiographs were obtained in 6 normally laboratory mice (Mus musculus). The R/L view heart measurements were the apicobasal length (AB); the maximum width (CD); the distance between the cranial edge of the fifth rib and the caudal edge of the seventh rib (R5-7); the vertical depth of the thorax (H). The VD/DV view cardiac silhouette measurements were maximum length (L); maximum width (W); the width of the thorax (T). In order to determine vertebral heart scale score (VHS), the length and width of the heart were measured and then superimposed to the thoracic vertebrae starting at fourth vertebral (T4) caudally. In order to determine intercostals space (ICS), the CD were measured perpendicularly and superimposed on the intercostals space from fourth costal caudally. The cardiac silhouette was evaluated objectively to describe the cardiac appearance. Lengths of the parameter were determined with a caliper and a ruler in millimeters scale. The result showed that all measurements have not differed significantly between radiographic views (p>0.05).
Buchanan JW, Bucheler J. 1995. Vertebral scale system to measure canine heart size in radiographs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 206:194-199.
Choisunirachon N, Kamonrat P. 2008. Vertebral scale system to measure heart size in radiographs of shih-tzus. Proceedings 7th Chula Univ Vet Sci Ann Con. 1 May, 2008
Gardner A, Thompson MS, Fontenot D, Gibson N, Heard DJ. 2007. Radiographic evaluation of cardiac size in flying fox species (Pteropus rodricensis, P. hypomelanus, and P. vampyrus). J Zoo Wildl Med 38(2): 192–200.
Ghadiri A, Avizeh R, Fazli Gh. 2010. Vertebral heart scale of common large breeds of dogs in Iran. Int J Vet Res. 4(2): 107-111.
Greco A, Meomartino L, Raiano V, Fatone G, Brunetti A. 2008. Effect of left vs. right recumbency on the vertebral heart score in normal dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 49:454-455.
Gulanber EG, Gonenci R, Kaya U, Aksoy O, Biricik HS. 2005. Vertebral scale system to measure heart size in thoracic radiographs of turkish shepherd (kangal) dogs. Turk J Vet Anim Sci: 29:723-726
Lamb CR, Boswood A. 2002. Role of survey radiography in diagnosing canine cardiac disease. Comp Cont Ed Prac Vet. 24:316-326.
Litster A, Buchanan JW. 2000. Vertebral scale system to measure heart size in radiographs of cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 216:210-214.
Sleeper MM, Buchanan JW. 2001. Vertebral scale system to measure heart size in growing puppies. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 219:57–59.
Stepien RL, Benson KG, Forrest LJ. 1999. Radiographic measurement of cardiac size in normal ferrets. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 40:606-610.
Copyright (c) 2018 CC-BY-SA
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).