DAMPAK PERUBAHAN IKLIM TERHADAP KENAIKAN MUKA AIR LAUT DI WILAYAH PESISIR PANGANDARAN
Salah satu dampak paling signifikan dari perubahan iklim adalah kenaikan permukaan laut. Wilayah pesisir Pangandaran yang terletak di Selatan Jawa Samudra Hindia secara langsung memiliki risiko banjir lebih tinggi akibat kenaikan permukaan laut (SLR) dibandingkan dengan wilayah pesisir di Utara Jawa. Dampak langsung dari kenaikan muka laut, pada umumnya, diukur berdasarkan besarnya kerusakan fisik maupun kerugian ekonomi. Dalam kajian ini, kerusakan fisik dinotasikan sebagai persentase penyusutan atau perubahan penggunaan/tutupan lahan yang terpapar oleh banjir air laut. Kerugian ekonomi didekati dengan biaya kerusakan tiap jenis penggunaan lahan yang terpapar oleh banjir air laut. Satuan biaya (unit cost) tiap jenis penggunaan/tutupan lahan yang terusakkan dapat diperoleh dari hasil survei kuesioner, diskusi kelompok mendalam (focus group discussion, FGD), dan riset terdahulu. Hasil analisis SLR menunjukkan bahwa sementara penurunan tanah mencapai lebih dari 85 ha. Sementara itu, kerugian permanen akibat SLR pada 2025 dan 2050 hampir sama yaitu sekitar 40 ha, meskipun SLR meningkat lebih dari 0,24 meter menjadi 0,50 meter (skenario rendah) atau dari 0,30 meter hingga 0,64 meter (skenario tinggi). Ini bisa dimengerti karena elevasi Pantai Pangandaran cukup tinggi. Selain kerugian fisik, jenis kerugian lain yang disebabkan oleh SLR rusak atau hilang sebagian dari penggunaan lahan. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa kerugian tertinggi terjadi di sektor permukiman dibandingkan dengan sektor pertanian, dan permukiman yang terkena dampak SLR lebih luas dengan meningkatnya periode proyeksi.
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