TEKNIK GULUDAN SEBAGAI SOLUSI METODE PENANAMAN MANGROVE PADA LAHAN YANG TERGENANG AIR YANG DALAM
Indonesia merupakan negara kepulauan yang terdiri atas sekitar 17.504 buah pulau dengan panjang garis pantai sekitar 95.181 km yang ditumbuhi oleh mangrove dengan lebar beberapa meter sampai beberapa kilometer dari garis pantai. Direktorat Jenderal Rehabilitasi Lahan dan Perhutanan Sosial Kementerian Kehutanan pada tahun 2007 melaporkan bahwa dari luas kawasan hutan mangrove sekitar 7.758.411 ha, sekitar 60% dari luas tersebut berada dalam kondisi yang rusak. Sebagian dari kawasan yang rusak tersebut terdiri atas lahan-lahan yang digenangi air yang dalam (kedalaman air lebih dari 1 m). Berdasarkan hasil penelitian selama 3 tahun (tahun 2008 sampai tahun 2010), secara empirik tehnik guludan sudah terbukti merupakan metode penanaman mangrove yang efektif untuk lahan-lahan yang tergenang air yang dalam tersebut. Tehnik guludan ini pada dasarnya terdiri atas 3 (tiga) tahapan, yaitu : (1) pembuatan konstruksi guludan berukuran lebar 4 sampai 5 meter, panjang 6 sampai 10 meter, dan tingginya sesuai dengan kedalaman air; (2) pengurugan guludan dengan karung tanah di bagian bawah yang ditutupi oleh tanah curah setebal 30 sampai 50 cm di bagian atasnya sebagai media tumbuh; dan (3) penanaman bibit mangrove dengan jarak tanam rapat (0,25 x 0,25 m), sedang (0,5 x 0,5 m), dan jarang (1 x 1 m). Saat ini penanaman mangrove dengan teknik guludan sudah banyak diterapkan oleh berbagai pihak di kawasan pesisir Angke Kapuk, Jakarta Utara.
Kata kunci: teknik guludan, metode penanaman mangrove, rehabilitasi mangrove
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