Energi Terbarukan dari Jerami Padi : Review Potensi dan Tantangan Bagi Indonesia

Agus Haryanto, Siti Suharyatun, Winda Rahmawati, Sugeng Triyono


Straw is a waste produced from the threshing and harvesting of rice. So far, rice straw has only been removed. In fact, it can be used as a potential energy source. This paper aims to examine the potential of rice straw as a renewable energy source in Indonesia. Opportunities and challenges were evaluated based on extensive and in-depth literature review. The paper discussed rice straw potential, its characteristics and benefits of using straw energy. Technology to convert rice straw into energy was also discussed. Results showed that renewable energy potential of rice straw is 28.8 TJ/year. Conversion technologies that can be applied include densification, combustion, gasification, and biogas. The biggest challenge for using rice straw energy is collection and transportation. Densification may overcome density problem by producing high quality pellets or briquettes that reduce transportation and storage costs. Straw characteristics need to be improved to increase its combustion properties.


Abraham, A., A.K. Mathew, R. Sindhu, A. Pandey and P. Binod. 2016. Potential of rice straw for bio-refining: An overview. Bioresource Technology Vol. 215, p. 29-36.

BPS. 2017. Statistik Indonesia 2017. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta.

Bruni, E., A.P. Jensen and I. Angelidaki. 2010. Comparative study of mechanical, hydro-thermal, chemical and enzymatic treatments of digested biofibers to improve biogas production. Bioresource Technology Vol. 101, p. 8713–8717.

Chang, C.H., C.C. Liu and P.Y. Tseng. 2013. Emissions inventory for rice straw open burning in Taiwan based on burned area classification and mapping using Formosat-2 satellite imagery. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. Vol. 13, p. 474–87.

Chen, L., L. Xing and L. Han. 2009. Renewable energy from agro-residues in China: Solid biofuels and biomass briquetting technology. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Vol. 13(9), p. 2689-2695.

Chiu, Y.-C., S.-J. Guo, S. Chen, C.-Y. Tsai and J.-M. Tsai. 2016. Planning the collection and transportation of rice straw in Nantou County, Taiwan. Applied Engineering in Agriculture Vol. 32(5), p. 1-8.

Darmawan, A., A.C. Fitrianto, M. Aziz, and K. Tokimatsu. 2017. Enhanced electricity production from rice straw. Energy Procedia Vol. 142, p. 271–277.

Dehghani, M., K. Karimi and M. Sadeghi. 2015. Pretreatment of rice straw for the improvement of biogas production. Energy Fuels Vol. 29(6), p. 3770–3775.

Delivand, M.K., M. Barz, S.H. Gheewala and B. Sajjakulnukit. 2011. Economic feasibility assessment of rice straw utilization for electricity generating through combustion in Thailand. Applied Energy Vol. 88, p. 3651–3658.

Djajanegara, A. and M. Rangkuti. 1983. Residues of importance as potential animal feeds in Indonesia, in edited by Shacklady, C.A. (Ed). The Use of Organic Residues in Rural Communities, United Nations University Press, Tokyo, p. 3-10.

Fitzgerald, G.J., K.M. Scow and J.E. Hill. 2000. Fallow season straw and water management effects on methane emissions in California rice. Global Biogeochem. Cy. Vol. 14, p. 767-776.

Flinn, J.C. and Marciano, V.P. 1984. Rice straw and stubble management, in Organic Matter and Rice. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines, p. 593-611.

Gill, N., R. Dogra and B. Dogra. 2017. Influence of moisture content, particle size, and binder ratio on quality and economics of rice straw briquettes. Bioenergy Research. DOI: 10.1007/s12155-017-9877-9.

Haryanto, A., B.P. Sugara, M. Telaumbanuwa, and R.A.B. Rosadi. 2018. Anaerobic co-digestion of cow dung and rice straw to produce biogas using semi-continuous flow digester: Effect of urea addition. IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science Vol. 147(1), p. 012032.

He, Y., Y. Pang, Y. Liu, X. Li and K. Wang. 2008. Physicochemical characterization of rice straw pretreated with sodium hydroxide in the solid state for enhancing biogas production. Energy and Fuels Vol. 22, p. 2775–81.

Hibukawa, H.S., A.I. Noue, S.H. Imeno and T.K. Omatsu. 2014. Examination of rice straw collection and transportation systems for the production of biogas by co-digestion with sewage sludge: A case study of the Nagaoka region in Niigata Prefecture. Japanese Journal of FarmWork Research Vol. 49(2), p. 69-78.

IRRI (International Rice Research Institute). 2018. Rice Straw (Rice Knowledge Bank). http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/step-by-step-production/postharvest/rice-by-products/rice-straw (visited February 10, 2018).

Ishii, K. and T. Furuichi. 2014. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets. Waste Management Vol. 34(12), p. 2621-2626.

Jenkins, B.M. 1998. Physical properties of biomass, in Kitani, O. and C.W. Hall (Eds). Biomass Handbook. Gordon and Breach, New York, p.

Jenkins, B.M., R.R. Bakker, R.B. Williams, R. Bakker-Dhaliwal, M.D. Summers, H. Lee, L.G. Bernheim, W. Huisman, L.L. Yan, P.
Andrade-Sanchez and M. Yore. 2000. Commercial feasibility of utilizing rice straw in power generation. Proceedings Bioenergy 2000, Buffalo, New York.

Jenkins, B.M., J.J. Mehlschau, R.B. Williams, C. Solomon, J. Balmes, M. Kleinman and N. Smith. 2003. Rice straw smoke generation system for controlled human inhalation exposures. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Vol. 37(5), p. 437–454.

Kadam, K.L., L.H. Forrest and W.A. Jacobson. 2000. Rice straw as a lignocellulosic resource: Collection, processing, transportation, and environmental aspects. Biomass and Bioenergy Vol. 18, p. 369-389.

Kalra, M.S. and J.S. Panwar. 1986. Anaerobic digestion of rice crop residues. Agricultural Wastes Vol. 17, p. 263-269.

Khan, A. 2015. Economic feasibility of biomass gasification for electricity generation in Pakistan. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: E Interdiciplinary Vol. 15(1), p. 19-23.

Lim, J.S., Z.A. Manan, S.R.W. Alwi and H. Hashim. 2012. A review on utilisation of biomass from rice industry as a source of renewable energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Vol. 16, p. 3084–3094.

Makhrani. 2014. Potential analysis of rice straw as an alternative energy source for substitute coal in Indonesia. Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 554, p. 276–280

Mandal, K.G., A.K. Misra, K.M. Hati, K.K. Bandyopadhyay, P.K. Ghosh and M. Mohanty. 2004. Rice residue management options and effects on soil properties and crop productivity. Food Agric. Environ. Vol. 2, p. 224–231.

Marsetyo. 2008. Strategi pemenuhan pakan untuk peningkatan produktivitas dan populasi sapi potong. Seminar Nasional Pengembangan Sapi Potong Untuk Mendukung Percepatan Pencapaian Swasembada Daging Sapi 2008-2010. Kerjasama Universitas Tadulako dan Subdinas Peternakan Distanbunak, Palu, p. 94–103.

Matsumura, Y., T. Minowa and H. Yamamoto. 2005. Amount, availability, and potential use of rice straw (agricultural residue) biomass as an energy resource in Japan. Biomass and Bioenergy Vol. 29, p. 347–354

Mussoline, W., G. Esposito, A. Giordano and P. Lens. 2013. The anaerobic digestion of rice straw: A review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 43, p. 895–915.

Nguyen, H.V., C.D. Nguyen, T.V. Tran, H.D. Hau, N.T. Nguyen and M. Gummert. 2016. Energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost of rice straw collection in the Mekong river delta of Vietnam. Field Crops Research 198: 16–22.

Nurhayati, T., Y. Waridi and H. Roliadi. 2006. Progress in the technology of energy conversion from woody biomass in Indonesia. Forestry Studies in China Vol. 8(3), p. 1–8.

Samuel, V. 2013. Environmental and socioeconomic assessment of rice straw conversion to ethanol in Indonesia: the case of Bali. Thesis. KTH School of Industrial Engineering and Management Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

Sarnklong, C., J.W. Cone, W. Pellikaan and W.H. Hendriks. 2010. Utilization of rice straw and different treatments to improve its feed value for ruminants: A review. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 23(5) : 680–692.

Shafi, S.M., H.H. Masjuki and T.M.I. Mahlia. 2014. Life cycle assessment of rice straw-based power generation in Malaysia. Energy Vol. 70, 401-410.

Singh, A. and Y. Singh. 1982. Briquetting of paddy straw. Agric Mech Asia Africa Latin Am. Vol. 13(4), p. 42–44.

Singh, B., Shan, Y.H., Johnson-Beebout, S.E., Singh, Y. and Buresh, R.J. 2008. Crop residue management for lowland rice-based cropping systems in Asia. Advances in Agronomy Vol. 98, p. 117-199.

Singh, Y. and H.S. Sidhu. 2014. Management of cereal crop residues for sustainable rice-wheat production system in the Indo-gangetic plains of India. Proc. Indian Natn. Sci. Acad. Vol. 80(1), p. 95–114.

Soam, S., P. Borjesson, P.K. Sharma, R.P. Gupta, D.K. Tuli and R. Kumar. 2017. Life cycle assessment of rice straw utilization practices in India. Bioresource Technology Vol. 228, p. 89-98.

Stelte, W., J.K. Holm, A.R. Sanadi, S. Barsberg, J. Ahrenfeldt and U.B. Henriksen. 2011. Fuel pellets from biomass: The importance of the pelletizing pressure and its dependency on the processing conditions. Fuel Vol. 90, p. 3285–3290.

Suramaythangkoor, T. and S.H. Gheewala. 2010. Potential alternatives of heat and power technology application using rice straw in Thailand. Applied Energy Vol. 87, p. 128-133.

Tumuluru, J.S., C.T. Wright, J.R. Hess and K.L. Kenney., 2011. A review of biomass densification systems to develop uniform feedstock commodities for bioenergy application. Biofuels, Bioprod. Bioref. Vol. 5, p. 683–707.

Wang, XX. ., Lu, F. Li and G. Yang. 2014. Effects of temperature and Carbon-Nitrogen (C/N) ratio on the performance of anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure, chicken manure and rice straw: Focusing on ammonia inhibition. PLOS ONE Vol. 9(5), p. e97265.

Yadav, M., R. Prawasi, R.P. Satyawan, K.K. Kumari, S.L. Siddharth and R.S. Hooda. 2015. Assessment of rice straw burning and its power generation potential in major rice growing districts of Haryana, India. International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR) Vol. 4(5), p. 1287-1293.


Agus Haryanto
agus.haryanto@fp.unila.ac.id (Primary Contact)
Siti Suharyatun
Winda Rahmawati
Sugeng Triyono
Author Biographies

Agus Haryanto, University of Lampung

Department of Agricultural and Biosystem Engineering

Siti Suharyatun, University of Lampung

Department of Agricultural and Biosystem Engineering

Winda Rahmawati, University of Lampung

Department of Agricultural and Biosystem Engineering
HaryantoA., SuharyatunS., RahmawatiW., & TriyonoS. (2020). Energi Terbarukan dari Jerami Padi : Review Potensi dan Tantangan Bagi Indonesia. Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian, 7(2), 137-146. https://doi.org/10.19028/jtep.07.2.137-146

Article Details

Most read articles by the same author(s)