Abundance and composition of plastic waste in Baturusa watershed of Bangka Belitung Islands Province
The usage of plastic has been increasing from year to year for its durable, lightweight, sturdy, easy to form, and low cost production, so that plastic becomes a popular material. Plastics have affinities with persistent organic pollutant such as PCB, DDT, PAH and phthalates that can damage the ecosystem as well as harm to human. In this study plastic wastes were collected using nets in seven stations along Baturusa watershed, sorted based on its composing resin (RIC), then measured the abundance and the density rate on each station. 36% of the collected plastic wastes are Polypropylene (02), and 24% are LDPE (04). The highest density rate of collected plastic wastes was found on Mabet river (1.36 x 102 items/m3), followed by Baturusa river, and Rangkui river estuary. These three stations are located near the settlements so that the source of the plastic wastes comes from domestic activities. The variety of waste management showed a significant impact to the amount of plastic wastes on waters. One of the plastic waste management for the settlements is to carry out 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle), such as waste bank programs and implement EPR (extended producer responsibility) programme. The successfulness of this programme can only be achieved by the active participation of the waste bank customers and the implementation of 3R principle in daily life.
[CPCB] Central Pollution Control Board 2016. Guidelines for Disposal of Thermoset Plastic Waste including Sheet moulding compound (SMC)/Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP). Delhi (IN).
[DLH] Dinas Lingkungan Hidup Provinsi Kepulauan Bangka Belitung. 2018. Dokumen Informasi Kinerja Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup Daerah Provinsi Kepulauan Bangka Belitung. Pangkalpinang (ID).
Blair RM, Waldron S, Phoenix V, Lindsay CG. 2017. Micro and nanoplastic pollution of freshwater and wastewater treatment systems. Springer Science Reviews. 5. 19-30.
Bouwman H, Minnaar K, Bezuidenhout C, Verster C. 2018. Microplastic in Freshwater Water Environments A Scoping Study. Report to the Water Research Comission. North West (ZA). North West University.
Bruge A, Barreau C, Carlot J, Collin H, Moreno C, Maison P. 2018. Monitoring litter inputs from the Adour River (Southwest France) to the marine. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 6. 24-36.
Cable RN, Beletsky D, Beletsky R, Wigginton K, Locke BW, Duhaime MB. 2017. Distributin adn modeled transport of plastic pollution im the Great Lakes, the world’s largest freshwater resource. Frontiers in Environmental Science. 5. 1-18.
Calcar CJV dan Emmerik THMV. 2019. Abundance of plastic debris across European and Asian rivers. Environmental Research Letters. 14.
Chaqmaqchee FAI, Baker AG, Salih NF. 2017. Comparison of Various Plastics Wastes Using X-rayFluorescence. American Journal of Materials Synthesis and Processing. 5(2): 24-27.
Emmerik TV dan Schwarz A. 2019. Plastic debris in rivers. Wiley Interdiciplinary Reviews : Water. e1398.
Emmerik TV, Loozen M, Oeveren KV, Buschman F, Prinsen G. 2019. Riverine plastic emission from Jakarta into the ocean. Environmental Research Letters. 14.
Holland ER, Mallory ML, Shutler D. 2016. Plastics and other anthropogenic debris in freshwater birds from Canada. Science of the Total Environment. 571. 251-258.
Kementerian Koordinator Bidang Maritim. 2018. Hotspot sampah laut Indonesia Laporan Sintesis. Jakarta (ID).
Lambert S, Wagner M. 2017. Microplastics are contaminants of emerging concerns in freshwater environments: an overview. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. 58. 1-23.
Lippiatt S, Opfer S, Arthur C. 2013. Marine debris monitoring and assessment: recommendations for monitoring debris trends in the marine environment. technical memorandum. Silver Spring (US). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Mccormick AR. 2015. Anthropogenic Litter and Microplastic in Urban Stream: Abundance, Source and Fate [tesis]. Chicago (US) : Loyola University Chicago.
Mendoza A, 2018. The impacts of plastic pollution in the Great Lakes. Sacramento (US). California State University.
Mongtoeun Y, Fujiwara T, Vin S. 2019. Household Solid Waste Generation and Socioeconomic Factors in the Capital City of Cambodia. International Journal of Environmental Sciences&Natural Resources. 2019; 20(1): 556029.
Nerland IL, Halsband C, Allan I, Thomas KV. 2014. Microplastic in Marine Environtments: Occurance, Distribution and Effects. Oslo (NO). Akvaplanniva.
Nugraha A, Sutjahjo SH, Amin AA. 2018. Persepsi dan partisipasi masyarakat terhadap pengelolaan sampah rumah tangga melalui bank sampah di jakarta selatan. JPSL. 8 (1) : 7-14.
Okatama I. 2016. Analisa peleburan limbah plastic jenis polyethylene Terphtalate (PET) menjadi bijih plastik melalui Pengujian alat pelebur plastik. Jurnal Teknik Mesin. 5 (03). 109-113.
Pemerintah Indonesia. 2012. Peraturan Menteri Lingkungan Hidup No. 13 Tahun 2012 tentang pedoman pelaksanaan reduce, reuse dan recycle melalui bank sampah. Berita Negara RI Tahun 2012, No. 804. Jakarta (31): Sekretariat Negara.
Pemerintah Indonesia. 2018. Peraturan Presiden No. 83 Tahun 2018 tentang Penanganan sampah laut. Lembara Negara RI Tahun 2018, No. 168. Jakarta (31): Sekretariat Negara.
Pinheiro C, Viera NR, Oliveira U. 2017. Occuranceand impacts of microplastics in freshwater fish. Journal of Aquaculture & Marine Biology. 5(6). 138-143.
PlasticEurope. 2017. Plastic – The facts 2017 An analysis of European plastics production, demand and waste data. Brussel (BE).
Rist S, Hartmann NS. 2017. Aquatic ecotoxicocity of microplastics and nanoplastics: lesson learned from enginereed nanomaterials. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. 58: 25-49.
Suliyanto. 2014. Statistik non parametrik dalam aplikasi penelitian. Yogyakarta (ID): Penerbit Andi Yogyakarta.
Sumantri A dan Cordova MR. 2011. Dampak Limbah Domestik Perumahan Skala Kecil Terhadap Kualitas Air Ekosistem Penerimanya Dan Dampaknya Terhadap Kesehatan Masyarakat. JPSL. 1 (2) : 127- 134.
Taryono, Pe EOL, Wardiatno Y, Mashar A. 2019. Macroplastic distribution, abundance, and composition which flows to Cimandiri estuary, West Java. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science (420).
Vermaire JC, Pomeroy C, Herczegh SM, Haggart O, Murphy M. 2017. Microplastic abundance and distribution in the open water and sediment of the Ottawa River, Canada, and its tributaries. FACETS. 2: 310-314.
Vincent AES dan Hoellein TJ. 2017. Anthropogenic litter abundance and accumulatio rates point to seasonal litter souces on a Great Lakes beach. Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education. 160: 72-84.
Walalangi JY. 2012 Analisis komposisi sampah organik dan anorganik serta dampak terhadap lingkungan pesisir Kota Palu Sulawesi Tengah [tesis]. Bogor (ID): Institut Pertanian Bogor.
Wu C, Zhang K, Xiong X. 2017. Microplastic pollution in inland waters focusing on asia. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. 58: 85-99.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).