Early Growth of Acacia mangium × Acacia auriculiformis Hybrid in a Clonal Test at Three Different Sites in Indonesia

Sri Sunarti, Budiyansah Budiyansah, Arif Nirsatmanto



Acacia mangium × Acacia auriculiformis hybrid is a promising new option for forest plantations that is propagated using clonal technologies. However, its deployment must be supported by an understanding f how clones respond to differing environment conditions. A multi-site test is therefore necessary; in this   study, three sites, one in Central Java, and one each in Riau and Jambi were used. Between 20 and 44 clones were used at each site, and nine were common to each site. Each trial was laid out in a randomized complete block design with between four and 20 replications, and a between-tree spacing of either 3 × 3 m or 3 × 2 m. Height (H), diameter at breast height (D) and volume (V) were measured two years after planting. Growth rates in Riau and Jambi were substantially higher than in Central Java, a difference that can be attributed to soil type and rainfall. Significant differences were found among the clones for all these variables at all the three sites. For the three sites, clone repeatability was high and ranged from 0.91 to 0.97; ramet repeatability was moderate and ranged from 0.49 to 0.59. Clone x site interaction was highly significant in all parameters observed.  For the nine common clones, multi-site clone repeatability was also high (0.93-0.96), but ramet repeatability was low (0.26-0.35). The best performing clones were Clones 4, 6 and 44. However there were differences in ranking, and only Clone 44, in Central Java and Riau, was the best performing. The experiment has shown the importance of these trials for developing strategies for deploying clonal stock. However the results suggest that it will take longer than two years for a clear pattern of differences between clones to emerge.

Keywords: new variety, clone, repeatability, multi-site


Baltunis BS, Brawner JT. 2010. Clonal stability in Pinus radiata across New Zealand and Australia I. growth and form traits. New Forest. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-010-9201-4

Beadle C, Ottenschlaeger M, Dung PT, Mohammed C. 2013. Optimising silvicultural management and productivity of high-quality
Acacia plantations, especially for sawlogs. Final Report, ACIAR Project FST/2006/087. Australia.

Bentzer BG, Foster GS, Hellberg AR, Podzorski AC. 1988. Genotype x environment interaction in Norway spruce involving three level of genetic control: seed source, clone mixture, and clone. Canadian Journal Forest Research (18):1172−-1181. https://doi.org/10.1139/x88-180

Borralho NMG, Almeida IM, Cotterill PP. 1992. Genetic controls of young Eucalyptus globulus in Portugal. Silvae Genetica 41(2):100−-105.

Brawner JT, Japarudin Y, Lapammu M, Rauf R, Boden D, Wingfield MJ. 2015. Evaluating the inheritance of Ceratocystis acaciivora symptom expression in a diverse Acacia mangium breeding population. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science, 77:83−-90. https://doi.org/10.2989/20702620.2015.1007412.

Bueren V. 2004. Acacia hybrid in Vietnam. Final reportACIAR project FST/1986/030. Australia.

Cotterill PP, Dean CA. 1990. Successful tree breeding with index selection. East Melbourne Australia: CSIRO Division of Forestry and Forest Product. pp 80.

Dhillon GPS, Singh A, Singh P, Sidhu DS. 2010. Field evaluation of Populus deltoides Bartr. Ex Marsh. At two sites in indo-gangetic plain of India. Silvae Genetica 59(1):1−-7. https://doi.org/10.1515/sg-2010-0001.

Falconer DS. 1960. Introduction to quantitative genetic. New York: The Ronald Press Company.

Foth HD. 1988. Fundamentals of soil science. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Frampton LJ Jr, Foster GS. 1993. Field testing vegetative propagules. In: Clonal Forestry I. German: Springer-Verlag.

Galiana A, Goh D, Chevallier MH, Gidiman J, Moo H, Hattah, Japarudin Y. 2003. Micropropagation of A. mangium x A. auriculiformis hybrids in Sabah. Boist et Forets Des Tropiques 275(1).

Goh DKS, Japarudin Y, Alwi A, Lapammu M, Flori A, Monteuuis. 2013. Growth differences and genetic parameter estimates of 15 teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) genotypes of various ages clonally propagated by micro cuttings and planted under humid tropical conditions. Silvae Genetica 62(4-5):196−-206.

Handayani BR, Sunarti S, Nirsatmanto A. 2017. Seleksi dan perolehan genetik pada kebun benih semai generasi ketiga Acacia mangium (in Indonesian). Jurnal Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan 11(1):57−-66. https://doi.org/10.20886/jpth.2017.11.1.57-66.

Hardiyanto EB, Nambiar EK, Inail MA. 2015. Challenges to site management during large-scale transition from Acacia mangium to Eucalyptus pellita in short rotation forestry on mineral soil in Sumatra, Indonesia. IUFRO Eucalypt Conference. Zhanjiang. China

Harwood CE, Hardiyanto EB, Wong CY. 2015. Genetic improvement of tropical Acacias: achievements and challenges. Southern Forests: Journal of Forest Science (77):11−-18.

Ibrahim Z. 1993. Reproductive Biology. In: Acacia mangium Growing and Utilization. Bangkok: Winrock International and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Kang KS, Han MS, Kim IS, Nam SH. 2013. Estimation of genetic parameter for growth performance and survival rate in a clonal test of Peronema canescens. Plant Breeding Biotechnology 12(3):245−-252.

Karlsson B, Hogberg KA. 1998. Genotypics parameters and clone x site interaction in clone test of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst). Forest Genetic 5(1):21−-31.

Kato K, Yamaguchi S, Chigira O, Hanaoka S. 2014. Comparative study of reciprocal crossing for establishment of Acacia hybrids. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 26(4):469−-483.

Kato K, Yamaguchi S, Chigira, Ogawa Y, Isoda, K. 2012. Tube pollination using stored pollen for creating Acacia auriculiformis hybrid. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 24(2):209−-216.

Kha LD. 2001. Studies on the Use of Natural Hybrids Between Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis in Vietnam. Agriculture Publising House. Hanoi.

Kha LD, Harwood CE, Kien ND. 2012. Growth and wood basic density of Acacia hybrid clones at three location in Vietnam. New Forest (43):13−-29. https://doi.org/10.1007/s 1056-011-926-y

Khalid I, Wahap R, Sulaiman O, Mohamed A, Tabet T, Alamjuri RH. 2010. Enhancing colour appearances of 15 cultivated 15 year old Acacia hybrids through heat treatment process. International Journal of Biology 2(2):199−-209.

Kien ND, Jansson G, Harwood C, Almaqvist. 2010. Clonal variation and genotype by environment interactions in growth and wood density in Eucalyptus camadulensis at three contrasting sites in Vietnam. Silvae Genetica 59(1):17−-28.

Kien ND. 2009. Improvement of Eucalyptus plantation grown pulp production [dissertation]. Uppsala: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.

Kijkar S.1992. Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis). Thailand: Forest Tree Seed Center.

Krisnawati H, Kallio M, Kanninen M. 2011. Acacia mangium Willd. ekologi, silvikultur dan produktitvitas (in Indonesian). Bogor: Center for International Forest Research.

Lai M, Sun X, Chen D, Xie Y, Zhang S. 2014. Age-age trends in genetic parameters for Larix kaempferi and their implications for early selection. Genetics 15(1):1−-10.

Le DK, Ha HT. 2016. Research and development of Acacia hybrids for commercial planting in Vietnam. Life Science Agriculture 1(1).

Luangviriyasaeng V.2007. Current situation and potential of plantation for pulp industry. NFT News (10):1.

Maniee M, Kahrizi D, Mohammadi R. 2009. Genetic variability of some morpho-physiological traits in durum wheat (Triticum turgnum var Durum). Journal of Applied Science 9(7):1383−-1387
Ministry of Forestry. 2004. Sekilas tentang hutan penelitian Wonogiri (in Indonesian). Yogyakarta: Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan
Bioteknologi dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan.

Nghiem CQ, Harwood CE, Harbard JL, Griffin AR, Ha TH, Koutoulis A. 2011. A. Floral phenology and morphology of colchicine-induced tetraploid Acacia mangium compared with diploid A. mangium and A. auriculiformis: implications for interploidy pollination. Australian Journal of Botany (59):582−-592.

Nikles DG, Hardwood CE, Robson KJ, Pomroy PC, Keenan R. 1998. Management and use of ex situ genetic resources of some tropical Acacias species in Queensland. In: Developments in Acacias planting. Canberra,pp. 184-196.

Potts BM, Volker PW, Tilyard PA, Joyce K. 2000. The genetic of hybridizationin the temperate Eucalyptus. In: Dungey HS, Dieters MJ & Nikles DG, Editors.Hybrid Breeding and Genetics of Forest Trees. Proceedings of QFRI/CRC-SPF Symposium, 9-14 April 2000, Noosa, Queensland, Australia. pp. 200-211.

Rokeya UK, Hossain MA, Ali MR, Paul SP. 2010. Physical and mechanical properties of hybrid Acacia (A. auriculiformis x A. mangium). Journal of Bangladesh Academy of Sciences 32(2):181-187.

Santos GAD, Nunes ACP, Resende MDVD, Silva LD, Higa A, Assis TFD. 2016. An index combining volume and pilodyn penetration to study stability and adaptability of Eucalyptus multi-species hybrids in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Journal Australian Forestry 79(4):248-255. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049158.2016.1237253.

Sein C, Mitlohner R. 2011. Acacia hybrid: Ecology and silviculture in Vietnam. Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research.
Statistik Indonesia. 2015. Indonesia: Badan Pusat Statistik (in Indonesian).

Sunarti S, Adyantara VD, Suharyanto, Setyaji T, Nirsatmanto A. 2016. Evaluasi produksi benih pada kebun benih hibrid Acacia (Acacia mangium x Acacia auriculiformis) di Wonogiri, Jawa Tengah (in Indonesian). Jurnal Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan 10(1):39−-49. https://doi.org/10.20886/jpth.2016.10.1.39-49.

Sunarti S, Akbar OT, Ruspandi, Setyaji T, Nirsatmanto A. 2014. Variasi kualitas kayu dan produktivitas pulp beberapa klon akasia hibrida (in Indonesian). Prosiding seminar nasional:Benih unggul untuk hutan tanaman, restorasi ekosistem, dan antisipasi perubahan iklim. Yogyakarta, 19−-20 November 2014.

Sunarti S, Na’iem M, Hardiyanto EB, Indrioko S. 2013. Breeding strategy of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis) to increase forest plantation productivity in Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Forest Management 19(2):128−-137. https://doi.org/10.7226/jtfm.19.2.128.

Sunarti S. 2013. Breeding strategy of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis) [dissertation]. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University.
White TL, Adams WT, Neale DB. 2007. Forest genetics. United of Kingdom: CAB International. https://doi.org/10.1079/9781845932855.0000

Yahya R, Sugiyama J, Gril J. 2010. Some anatomical features of Acacia hybrid, A. mangium and A. auriculiformis grown in Indonesia with regard to pulp yield and strength paper. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 33(3): 343−-351.

Zhao BX, Hou W, Zheng H, Zhang Z. 2012. Analyses of genotypic variation in white poplar clones at four sites in China. Silvae Genetica 62(4-5):187−-195. https://doi.org/10.1515/sg-2013-0023


Sri Sunarti
narti_nirsatmanto@yahoo.com (Primary Contact)
Budiyansah Budiyansah
Arif Nirsatmanto
SunartiS., BudiyansahB., & NirsatmantoA. (2018). Early Growth of Acacia mangium × Acacia auriculiformis Hybrid in a Clonal Test at Three Different Sites in Indonesia. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 24(2), 105. Retrieved from https://jurnal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jmht/article/view/21330

Article Details

Space Planting, Competition, and Productivity of a Seven-Year-Old Clonal Teak Plantation in the East Java Monsoon Forest Area

Rika Bela Rahmawati, Suryo Hardiwinoto, Widiyatno, Budiadi, Yahya Amin, Aulia Hasanusi
Abstract View : 1144
Download :818

Spacing and Genotype on Height and Diameter Growth of Four Eucalyptus under Short Rotation

Balozi B Kirongo, Angela S Mbelase, Kingiri Senelwa, Joseph Hitimana, Lazare Etiegni
Abstract View : 768
Download :563

Five Year Growth and Survival of Eucalyptus Hybrid Clones in Coastal Kenya

Balozi B Kirongo, Kimani G K, Kingiri Senelwa, Lazare Etiegni, Angela Mbelase, Mbae Muchiri
Abstract View : 668
Download :612