Space Planting, Competition, and Productivity of a Seven-Year-Old Clonal Teak Plantation in the East Java Monsoon Forest Area

Rika Bela Rahmawati, Suryo Hardiwinoto, Widiyatno, Budiadi, Yahya Amin, Aulia Hasanusi


Tree breeding of teak results in selected clones with high growth. Intensive silviculture is required to support a large-scale clonal teak plantation. Appropriate spacing is one of the methods to increase forest plantation productivity. Research of teak clone spacing was conducted on a seven-year-old clonal teak plantation with randomized completely block design. The treatments tested in this study were four plant spacing distances, namely, 3 m × 3 m, 6 m × 2 m, 8 m × 2 m, and 10 m × 2 m. Results show that spacing had significantly different effects on diameter, height, bole height, branch angle, crown area, crown projections, volume, and competition index. However, the height growth did not exhibit any significant differences. The 10 m × 2 m spacing produced the best diameter growth, crown area, and competition index, but has a low volume per hectare and the lowest height of free branch and branch angle. Meanwhile, the 3 m × 3 m spacing will increase bole height and stand volume per hectare. This result suggests that spacing could improve the growth of teak clone but must be followed by intensification of proper maintenance to reduce branch angle and increase bole height.


Budiadi, Widiyatno, & Ishii, H. (2017). Response of a clonal teak plantation to thinning and pruning in Java, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 29, 44–53. Retrieved from

[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik Ngawi. (2018). Rata-rata curah hujan tiap bulan menurut lokasi penakar di Kabupaten Ngawi 2016–2017. Retrieved from

Cardoso, D. J., Lacerda, A. E., Rosot M. A., Garrastazú, M. C., & Lima R. T. (2013). Influence of spacing regimes on the development of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in southern Brazil. Forest Ecology Management, 310, 761–769.

Contreras, M. A., Affleck, D., & Chung, W. (2011). Evaluating tree competition indices as predictors of basal area increment in western Montana forests. Forest Ecology Management, 262, 1939–1949.

[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization. (2013). Natural teak forests decline, while planted teak forests increase. Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations.

Goh, D. K. S. (2016, February 22–26). Rationale for clonal teak plantations [Paper presentation]. Asia-Pacific Forestry Week 2016, Pampanga, Philippines. Retrieved from

Haninec, P., Petr, M., Martin, S., Hana, H., Martin, S., Lubos, U., Milan, R., Jindr I.P., Josef, C., Katerina N., & Radek, S. (2016). Assessment of teak production characteristics using 1 m spacing in a plantation in Nicaragua. Bois Et Forets Des Tropiques, 300, 37–47.

Harrington, T. B., Harrington, C. A., & DeBell, D. S. (2009). Effects of planting spacing and site quality on 25-year growth and mortality relationships of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii). Forest Ecology and Management, 258, 12–25.

Hegyi, F. (1974). A simulation model for managing jack-pine stands. In Fries, J. (Ed.), Growth models for tree and stand simulation. Stockholm: Royal College of Forestry.

Iddi, S., Chamshama S. A., & Malimbwi, R. E. (1996). Planting spacing in forest plantation: A review, record 63, Faculty of Forestry. Morogoro, Tanzania: Sokoine University of Agriculture.

Kollert, W., & Cherubini, L., (2012). Teak resources and market assessment 2010. FAO Planted Forests and Trees Working Paper FP/47/E. Rome. Retrieved form

Kollert, W., & Kleine, M. (Eds.) (2017). The global teak study: Analysis, evaluation and potential of teak resources. Vienna: IUFRO World Series Volume 36. Retrieved from

Ling, L. T., Yap, S., Radhakrishnan, A. K., Subramaniam,T., Cheng, H. M., & Palanisamy, U. D. (2009). Standardized Mangifera indica extract is an ideal antioxidant. Food Chemistry, 113, 1154–1159.

Maleki, K., Kiviste, A., & Korjus, H. (2015). Analysis of individual tree competition effect on diameter growth of silver birch in estonia. Forest Systems, 24, e023.

Malimbwi, A., Persson, S., Iddi, S., Chamshama, S. A. O., & Mwihomeke, S. T. (1992). Effects of spacing on yield and some wood properties of Pinus patula at Rongai, Northern Tanzania. Forest Ecology and Management, 53, 297–306.

Medeiros, R. A., Paiva, H. N., & D’Ávila, L. (2018). Growth and yield of teak stands at different spacing. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira Brasília, 53, 1109–1118.

Meng, S. X., Leiffers, V. J., & Huang, S. (2007). Modelling crown volume of lodgepole pine based upon uniform stress theory. Forest Ecology and Management, 251, 174–181.

[MoF] Ministry of Forestry. (2012). Statistik Kehutanan Indonesia 2011. Jakarta: Ministry of Forestry Indonesia.

Nahuel, A. Pachas, A. N. A., Sakanphet, S., Soukkhy, O., Lao, M., Savathvong, S., ..., & Dieters, M.J. (2019). Initial spacing of teak (Tectona grandis) in northern Lao PDR: Impacts on the growth of teak and companion crops. Forest Ecology and Management, 435, 77–88.

Na'iem, M. (2000). Early performance of clonal tests of teak. In E. B. Hardiyanto (Ed.), Third regional seminar on teak. Potential and opportunities in marketing and trade of plantation teak: Challenge for the new millenium (pp 217–275). Faculty of Forestry Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Na’iem, M. (2012). Peningkatan produktivitas hutan berbasis silvikultur intensif (SILIN): Strategi efisiensi penggunaan kawasan hutan. In A. Nugraha (Ed.), Darurat hutan Indonesia, mewujudkan arsitektur baru kehutanan Indonesia (pp.162–183). Banten: Wana Aksara.

Ola-Adams, B. A. (1990). Influence of spacing on growth and yield of Tectona grandis L.f. and Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels (Afara). Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 2, 180–186. Retrieved from

Pachas, A. N. A., Somphanh, S., Outhai, S., Maichor, L., Sianouvong, S., Jonathan, C., ..., & Mark, J. (2019). Initial spacing of teak (Tectona grandis) in Northern Lao PDR: Impacts on the growth of teak and companion crops. Forest Ecology and Management, 435, 77–88.

Palanisamy, K., Gireesan, K., Nagarajan, V., & Hegde, M. (2009). Selection and clonal multiplication of superior trees of teak (Tectona grandis) and preliminary evaluation of clones. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 21, 168–174. Retrieved from

Perez, D., & Kanninen, M. (2003). Provisional equations for estimating total and merchantable volume of Tectona grandis trees in Costa Rica. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods, 13, 345–359.

Perez, D., & Kanninen, M. (2005). Stand growth scenarios for Tectona grandis plantations in Costa Rica. Forest Ecology and Management, 210, 425–441.

Perhutani. (2014). Statistik Perum Perhutani 2009– 2013. Jakarta: Perum Perhutani.

Pfister, O., Wallentin, C., Nilsson, U., & Eko, P. M. (2007). Effects of wide spacing and thinning strategies on wood quality in Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in Southern Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 22, 333–343.

Pretzsch, H., Biber, P., Uhl, E., Dahlhausen, J., Rötzer, T., Caldentey, J., Koike, T., Con T.V., Chavanne, A., Seifert T., Toit, B.D., Farnden, C., & Pauleit. S. (2015). Crown size and growing space requirement of common tree species inurban centers, parks, and forests. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 14, 466–479.

Sreekanth, P. M., Balasundaran, M., Nazeem, P. A., & Suma, T. B. (2012). Genetic diversity of nine natural Tectona grandis L.f. populations of the Western Ghats in Southern India. Conservation Genetics, 13, 1409–1419.

Tanaka, N., Hamazaki, T., & Vacharangkura, T. (1998). Distribution, growth and site requirements of teak. JARQ, 32, 65–77.

Ugalde, L. A. (2013). Teak: New trends in silviculture: commercialization and wood production. Cartago: International Forestry and Agroforestry.

Vincent, G., & Harja, D. (2008). Exploring ecological significance of tree crown plasticity through three dimensional modeling. Annals of Botany, 1–12.

Wehr, J. B., Blamey, F. P., Smith, T. E., & Menzies, N. W. (2016). Growth and physiological responses of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) clones to Ca, H and Al stresses in solution and acid soils. New Forests, 48, 137–152.

Woodruff, D., Barbara, J. B., Gary, A. R., & William, S. (2002). Effects of stand density on the growth of young Douglas-fir trees. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 32, 420–427.

Zahabu, E., Tumaini, R., Shabani, A., Omari, C., Said, I., & Rogers, E. (2015). Effect of spacing regimes on growth, yield, and wood properties of Tectona grandis at Longuza Forest Plantation, Tanzania. International Journal of Forestry Research, 1–6.

Zanin, D. K. (2005). Feasibility of teak production for small holders in Eastern Panama [thesis]. Michigan: Forestry Michigan Technological University. Retrieved from

Zhou, Z., Liu, S., Liang, K., Ma, H., & Huang, G. (2017). Growth and mineral nutrient analysis of teak (Tectona grandis) grown on acidic soils in South China. Journal of Forestry Research, 28, 503–511.


Rika Bela Rahmawati
Suryo Hardiwinoto (Primary Contact)
Yahya Amin
Aulia Hasanusi
RahmawatiR. B., HardiwinotoS., Widiyatno, Budiadi, AminY., & HasanusiH. (2021). Space Planting, Competition, and Productivity of a Seven-Year-Old Clonal Teak Plantation in the East Java Monsoon Forest Area. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 27(2), 123.

Article Details

Land Use Conversion and Soil Properties in a Lowland Tropical Landscape of Papua New Guinea

Nangu George, Rajashekhar Rao Bangadi Killur, David Lopez Cornelio
Abstract View : 637
Download :861

Ecological Aspect of Pidada (Soneratia caseolaris Linn. Engler, 1987) at Muara Angke, Jakarta

Nyoto Santoso, Cecep Kusmana, Dedi Sudarma, Rinekso Sukmadi
Abstract View : 690

Penerapan Reduced Impact Logging Menggunakan Monocable Winch

Yosep Ruslim
Abstract View : 1224
Download :2475