Thyroid Dysfunction, Total Cholesterol Levels and Anthropometric Status in Women of Reproductive Age in Iodine Deficient Area of Prambanan Sub-District, Sleman Regency, Indonesia

M Mutalazimah, Geeta Appannah, Nur Lathifah Mardiyati, Farida Nur Isnaeni, Pramudya Kurnia


This study aimed to determine the relationship between thyroid dysfunction with Total Cholesterol levels (TC), Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC) and Waist to hip Circumference Ratio (WHR). The cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the endemic iodine deficiency areas in Prambanan Sub-district, Sleman Regency. A total subject of 134 women of reproductive age were selected randomly from the source population of 592. Thyroid dysfunction determined by Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Free Thyroxine (FT4) level were measured by ELISA method. Total cholesterol level was measured by colorimetric method using a spectrophotometer. We also measured the weight and height for BMI calculation as well as the WC and Hip Circumference (HC). Chi-Square test was applied to analyze association between thyroid dysfunction with TC levels, BMI, WC and WHR. Results found the percentage of thyroid dysfunction in subjects was 39.6% (hypothyroidism 4.5% and hyperthyroidism 35.1%). The percentage of subjects with hypercholesterolemia was 34.3%. The BMI calculation found that the underweight, overweight and obesity proportions were 6.7%; 16.4% and 27.6% respectively; WC >80 cm was 29.9% and WHR >0.85 was 38.8%. There was no association between thyroid dysfunction and TC levels, BMI and WC (p>0.05) respectively. Meanwhile thyroid dysfunction was significantly associated with WHR (p<0.05). Therefore, women in reproductive age with thyroid dysfunction should be aware of their increasing abdominal adiposity.


Adegoke O, Ozoh OB, Odeniyi IA, Bello BT, Akinkugbe AO, Ojo OO, Agabi OP, Okubadejo NU. 2021. Prevalence of obesity and an interrogation of the correlation between anthropometric indices and blood pressures in urban Lagos, Nigeria. Scientific Reports 11(1):1−12.
Arce-Sánchez L, Vitale SG, Flores-Robles CM, Godines-Enriquez MS, Noventa M, Urquia-Figueroa CM, Martínez-Cruz N, Estrada-Gutierrez G, Sosa SEY, Romo-Yañez J, et al. 2021. Effect of the cut-off level for thyroid-stimulating hormone on the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among infertile Mexican women. Diagnostics 11(3):417.
Aubert CE, Floriani C, Bauer DC, Da Costa BR, Segna D, Blum MR, Collet TH, Fink HA, Cappola AR, Syrogiannaoli L, et al. 2017. Thyroid function tests in the reference range and fracture: Individual participant analysis of prospective cohorts. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 102(8):2719−2728.
Castello R, Caputo M. 2019. Thyroid diseases and gender. Italian Journal of Gender-Specific Medicine 5(3):136−141.
Eastman CJ, Ma G, Li M. 2019. Optimal assessment and quantification of iodine nutrition in pregnancy and lactation: Laboratory and clinical methods, controversies and future directions. Nutrients 11(10):2378.
Eastman C, Zimmermann M. 2018. The iodine deficiency disorder (Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A (ed.): Updated 20). Endotext [Internet].
Fitriyanti AR, Sulchan M, Tjahjono K, Sunarto S. 2019. Prediction of insulin resistance in late adolescent based on anthropometric index. J Gizi Pangan 14(2):53−60.
Harbuwono DS, Tahapary DL, Tarigan, TJE, Yunir E. 2020. New proposed cut-off of waist circumference for central obesity as risk factor for diabetes mellitus: Evidence from the Indonesian Basic National Health Survey. Plos One 15(11):e0242417.
[IDF] International Diabetes Federation. 2007. IDF Consensus Worldwide Definition of the Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents. Belgium (BE): IDF.
Khatiwada S, Sah SK, KC R, Baral N, Lamsal M. 2016. Thyroid dysfunction in metabolic syndrome patients and its relationship with components of metabolic syndrome. Clin Diabetes Endocrinol 2(1):1−5.
Mahdavi M, Amouzegar A, Mehran L, Madreseh E, Tohidi M, Azizi F. 2021. Investigating the prevalence of primary thyroid dysfunction in obese and overweight individuals: Tehran thyroid study. BMC Endocr Disord 21(1):1−12.
Miharja L, Karyana M. 2019. Hyperthyroidism in Indonesian community: A mini review. Endocrinology Metab Int J 7(2):52−53.
Mulyasari I, Pontang GS. 2018. Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as indicators for excess adiposity in adolescents. J Gizi Pangan 13(3):131−136.
Mutalazimah M, Mulyono B, Murti B, Azwar S. 2013. Asupan Yodium, ekskresi yodium urine, dan goiter pada wanita usia subur di daerah endemis defisiensi yodium. Kesmas: Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional 8(3):133−138.
Motamed B, Eftekharzadeh A, Hosseinpanah F, Tohidi M, Hasheminia M, Azizi F. 2016. The relation between changes in thyroid function and anthropometric indices during long-term follow-up of euthyroid subjects: The Tehran thyroid Study (TTS). Eur J Endocrinol 175(4):247−253.
Nurcahyani YD, Sukandar PB, Fitriyanto RE, Akhmad SA. 2020. Relationship between thyroid hormone and lipid profile in patients with struma at the iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) clinic of research and development center Magelang. Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Indonesia 11(2):130−140.
Pearce EN, Lazarus JH, Moreno-Reyes R, Zimmermann MB. 2016. Consequences of iodine deficiency and excess in pregnant women: An overview of current knowns and unknowns. Am J Clin Nutr 104:918S−923S.
Pengpid S, Peltzer K. 2017. The prevalence of underweight, overweight/obesity and their related lifestyle factors in Indonesia, 2014−15. AIMS Public Health 4(6):633−649.
Prihantini NN. 2021. Correlation between dieting patterns with total cholesterol levels in blood in the hkbp church congregation on September 2018. Int J Res Granthaalayah 9(4):240−255.
Razvi S, Ryan V, Ingoe L, Pearce SH, Wilkes S. 2020. Age-related serum thyroid-stimulating hormone reference range in older patients treated with levothyroxine: A randomized controlled feasibility trial (SORTED 1). Eur Thyroid J 9(1):40−48.
Ríos-Prego M, Anibarro L, Sánchez-Sobrino P. 2019. Relationship between thyroid dysfunction and body weight: A not so evident paradigm. Int J Gen Med 12:299−304.
Ross DS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, Greenlee MC, Laurberg P, Maia AL, Rivkees SA, Samuels M, Sosa JA, Stan MN, et al. 2016. 2016 American thyroid association guidelines for diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid 26(10):1343−1421.
Ross R, Neeland IJ, Yamashita S, Shai I, Seidell J, Magni P, Santos RD, Arsenault B, Cuevas A, Hu FB, et al. 2020. Waist circumference as a vital sign in clinical practice: A Consensus Statement from the IAS and ICCR Working Group on Visceral Obesity. Nat Rev Endocrinol 16(3):177−189.
Silva JS, Ocarino NM, Serakides R. 2018. Thyroid hormones and female reproduction. Biology of Reproduction 99(5):907−921.
Shahvazi S, Nadjarzadeh A, Mehri Z, Salehi-Abarguoei A. 2017. Comparison between different criteria to estimate obesity prevalence and its correlates in female adults residing in central Iran. Prog Nutr 19(3):295−304.
Stefan M, Faustino LC. 2017. Genetics of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor-relevance for autoimmune thyroid disease. Front Endocrinol 8:57.
Volke L, Krause K. 2021. Effect of thyroid hormones on adipose tissue flexibility. Eur Thyroid J 10(1):1−9.
[WHO] World Health Organization. 2014. Goitre as a Determinant of the Prevalence and Severity of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Populations. Geneva (CH): World Health Organization
Wong JC, O'Neill S, Beck BR, Forwood MR, Khoo SK. 2021. Comparison of obesity and metabolic syndrome prevalence using fat mass index, body mass index and percentage body fat. Plos One 16:e0245436.
Xu R, Huang F, Zhang S, Lv Y, Liu Q. 2019. Thyroid function, body mass index, and metabolic risk markers in euthyroid adults: A cohort study. BMC Endocr Disord 19(1):1−9.


M Mutalazimah (Primary Contact)
Geeta Appannah
Nur Lathifah Mardiyati
Farida Nur Isnaeni
Pramudya Kurnia
MutalazimahM., AppannahG., MardiyatiN. L., IsnaeniF. N., & KurniaP. (2022). Thyroid Dysfunction, Total Cholesterol Levels and Anthropometric Status in Women of Reproductive Age in Iodine Deficient Area of Prambanan Sub-District, Sleman Regency, Indonesia. Jurnal Gizi Dan Pangan, 17(2), 67-76.

Article Details