High Protein Milk Intervention in Malnourished Children and Its Effect on Weight Gain and Renal Function

Clara Meliyanti Kusharto, Karina Rahmadia Ekawidyani, Ikeu Tanziha, Budi Setiawan, Risti Rosmiati, Andi Muh Asrul Irawan


This study aimed to determine the effect of high-protein milk intervention on weight gain and renal function in malnourished children. This research is a randomized controlled trial (RCT). A total of 52 wasting children (BAZ -3<SD<-2) aged 3-12 years were selected by simple random sampling from five primary schools (6-12 years) and two Community Health Center (children below 6 years). Subjects were divided into two groups; control group (26) and intervention group (26). The intervention group was given high-protein milk (HPM) 3x25 g each day for 12 weeks. Body weight, serum creatinine, and urea were measured at week 0 (baseline), 6th (midline), and 12th (endline). The study showed that the body weight of the intervention group significantly increased by 1.54 kg after 12 weeks of high-protein milk consumption. Serum urea and creatinine levels in the intervention group also significantly increased (p<0.05). The increase in serum urea and creatinine levels in the intervention group were still within the normal range (normal serum urea level 15-43 mg/dl and normal creatinine level 0.6-1.2 mg/dl). This suggests that significant increases in urea and creatinine levels of the intervention group were normal because of increased protein intake and body muscle mass and it did not lead to renal function abnormalities.


Aimutis WR. 2004. Bioactive properties of milk proteins with particular focus on anticariogenesis. J Nutr 134(4):989S-995S

Abargouei AS, Janghorbani M, Salehi-Marzijarani M, Esmaillzadeh A. 2012. Effect of dairy consumption on weight and body composition in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Int J Obes 36(1):1485-1493.

Badve SV, Palmer SC, Hawley CM, Pascoe EM, Strippoli GFM, Johnson DW. 2016. Glomerular filtration rate decline as a surrogate end point in kidney disease progression trials. Nephrol Dial Transpl 31(9):1425-1436.

Baxmann AC, Ahmed MS, Marques NC, Menon VB, Pereira AB, Kirsztajn GM, Heilberg IP. 2008. Influence of muscle mass and physical activity on serum and urinary creatinine and serum Cystatin C. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 3(2):348-354.

Campbell B, Kreiders R, Ziegenfuss T. 2007. International society of sport nutrition position stand: protein and exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 4(1):1550-2783.

Damayanthi E, Dwiriani CM, Kustiyah L, Briawan D. 2010. Food habit among elementary school children in urban bogor. J Gizi Pangan 5(3):158-163.

Do Thi KL, Bui TN, Nguyen CK, Le Thi H, Nguyen TQN, Nguyen TH, Kiers J, Shigeru Y, Biesebeke RT. 2009. Impact of milk consumption on performance and health of primary school children in rural Vietnam. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 18(3):326-334.

Dover GJ. 2009. The Barker hypothesis: how pediatricans will diagnose and prevent common adult-onset disease. Transaction Of The American Clinical and Climatological Association 120:199-207.

Ghasemi A, Azimzadeh I, Afgan M, Momenan AA, Bagheripour F, Azizi F. 2015. Pediatric reference values for serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtrationrate in iranian: Tehran lipid and glucose study. Iranian Medicine 18(11):753-759.

Gibson RS. 2005. Principles of Nutritional Assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gowda S, Desai PB, Kulkarni SS, Hull VV, Math AAK, Vernekar SN. 2010. Markers of renal function tests. N Am J Med Sci 2(4):170-173.

Hardinsyah, Aries M. 2012. Jenis pangan sarapan dan perannya dalam asupan gizi harian anak usia 6-12 tahun di Indonesia. J Gizi Pangan 7(2):89-96.

Istiany A, Rusilanti. 2013. Gizi Terapan. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Jakubowicz D, Froy O. 2013. Biochemical and metabolic mechanisms by which dietary whey protein may combatobesity and Type 2 diabetes. J Nutr Biochem 24(1): 1-5.

[MoH] Ministry of Health. 2013. National Basic Health Report (Riskesdas). Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan.

Mitchell CJ, McGregor RA, D'Souza RF, Thorstensen EB, Markworth JF, Fanning AC, Poppitt SD, Cameron-Smith D. 2015. Consumption of milk protein or whey protein results in a similar increase in muscle protein synthesis in middle aged men. Nutrients 7(10):8685-8699.

Pal S, Ellis V, Dhaliwal S. 2010. Effects of whey protein isolate on body composition, lipids, insulin, and glucose in overweight and obese individuals. Br J Nutr 104(5):716-723.

Pimpin L, Jebb S, Johnson L, Wardle J, Ambrosini GL. 2015. Dietary protein intake is associated with body mass index and weight up to 5 y of age in a prospective cohort of twins. Am J Clin Nutr 103(2):389-397.

Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G. 2014. Comparison of high vs. normal/low protein diets on renal function in subjects without chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS One 9(5):1-13.

Setiowati A. 2012. Pengaruh diet tinggi protein terhadap indeks massa tubuh, persen lemak tubuh, kekuatan otot dan kecepatan pada atlet [thesis]. Semarang: Universitas Diponegoro.

Suryawan DGA, Arjani IAMS, Sudarmanto IG. 2016. Gambaran kadar urea dan kreatinin serum pada pasien gagal ginjal kronis yang menjalani terapi hemodialisis di RSUD Sanjiwani Gianyar. Meditory 4(2):145-153.

Wu G. 2016. Dietary protein intake and human health. Food Funct 7(3):1251–65


Clara Meliyanti Kusharto
kcl_51@yahoo.co.id (Primary Contact)
Karina Rahmadia Ekawidyani
Ikeu Tanziha
Budi Setiawan
Risti Rosmiati
Andi Muh Asrul Irawan
Author Biography

Clara Meliyanti Kusharto, Departmen of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Human Ecology, IPB University, Bogor

Departemen Gizi Masyarakat, Fakultas Ekologi Manusia, Institut Pertanian Bogor
KushartoC. M., EkawidyaniK. R., TanzihaI., SetiawanB., RosmiatiR., & IrawanA. M. A. (2019). High Protein Milk Intervention in Malnourished Children and Its Effect on Weight Gain and Renal Function. Jurnal Gizi Dan Pangan, 14(1), 31-36. https://doi.org/10.25182/jgp.2019.14.1.31-36

Article Details