Millennials' Deals with Plastic: The Effect of Natural Environmental Orientation, Environmental Knowledge, and Environmental Concern on Willingness to Reduce Plastic Waste

Nihayatu Aslamatis Solekah, Tanti Handriana, Indrianawati Usman


To maintain environmental sustainability can be managed and resolved by changing human behavior, especially by reducing plastic waste. This study investigated whether natural environmental orientation, environmental knowledge, environmental concern, and environmental attitude affect the extent to which millennials avoid or reduce the purchase of single-use plastic tableware, food with plastic packaging, and plastic water bottles called Willingness to Reduce Plastic Waste (WRPW). This study used quantitative using the purposive sampling method. Data collection techniques using online questionnaires were sent to respondents with criteria for educated millennial Muslims at Islamic universities in East Java, Central Java, and West Java. The survey was conducted for three months and obtained 369 respondents. The questionnaire is processed by using SEM analysis with Smart PLS. The results show that environmental knowledge provides a direct and an indirect effect on willingness to reduce plastic waste through environmental attitude. Meanwhile, environmental concern has no direct effect on willingness to reduce plastic waste, yet it has an indirect effect through environmental attitude. This research implies that concern for the environment is not necessarily accompanied by the willingness to reduce the use of plastic. However, adequate knowledge about the environment can increase the willingness to reduce the use of plastic among millennial generations who prioritize logical thinking and adapt to their knowledge. 


Ajzen, I. (1999). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211. doi:
Bamberg, S., & Möser, G. (2007). Twenty years after Hines, Hungerford, and Tomera: A new meta-analysis of psycho-social determinants of pro-environmental behaviour. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27, 14–25. doi:
Baztan, J., Carrasco, A., Chouinard, O., Cleaud, M., Gabaldon, J.E., Huck, T., Jaffres, L., Jorgensen, B., Miguelez, A., Paillard, C., & Vanderlinden, J. P. (2014). Protected areas in the Atlantic facing the hazards of micro-plastic pollution: first diagnosis of three islands in the Canary Current. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 80, 302-311. doi:
Blocker, T. J., & Eckberg, D. L. (1997). Gender and environmentalism: results from the 1993 general social survey. Social Science Quarterly, 78(4), 841-858.
Brahim, C., Wafa, S. A., & Wafa, S. K. W. (2016). Examining green consumerism motivational drivers: does premium price and demographics matter to green purchasing. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112(1137), 3436-3450. doi:
Cavaliere, A., Pigliafreddo, S., De Marchi, E., & Banterle, A. (2020). Do Consumers Really Want to Reduce Plastic Usage? Exploring the Determinants of Plastic Avoidance in Food-Related Consumption Decisions. Sustainability, 12(22), 9627. doi:
Chan, R. Y., & Lau, L. B. (2000). Antecedents of green purchases: a survey in China. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 17(4), 338-357. doi: 10.1108/07363760010335358
Clayton, S., Bexell, S. M., Xu, P., Tang, Y. F., Li, Wen J., & Chen, L. (2019). Environmental literacy and nature experience in Chengdu, China. Environmental Education Research, 25(7), 1105-1118. doi:
Coelho, F., Pereira, M. C, Cruz, L., Simões, P., & Barata, E. (2017) Affect and the adoption of pro-environmental behaviours: A structural model. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 54, 127-138. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2017.10.008
Connell, S., Fien, J., Lee, J. Sykes, H., & Yencken, D. (1999). If it doesn't directly affect you, you don't think about it: a qualitative study of young people's environmental attitudes in two Australian cities, Environmental Education Research, 5(1), 95-113. doi:
Culin, J., Bieli´c, T., & Jakši´C.K. (2019). Suggestions for improving the effectiveness of environmental education in the maritime sector. Scientific Journal of Maritime Research 33, 232-237. doi:
Dursun, I., Tümer Kabadayı, E., & Tu ˘ger, A.T. (2019). Overcoming the psychological barriers to energy conservation behaviour: The influence of objective and subjective environmental knowledge. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 43, 402–416. doi: 10.1111/ijcs.12519
Ellen, P. S. (1994). Do we know what we need to know? Objective and subjective knowledge effects on pro-ecological behaviors. Journal of Business Research, 30, 43–52. doi:
Eriksen, M., Maximenko, N., Thiel, M., Cummins, A., Lattin, G., Wilson, S., Hafner, J., Zellers, A., & Rifman, S. (2013). Plastic pollution in the South Pacific subtropical gyre. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 68, 71-76. doi:
Eze, U. C., & Ndubisi, N. O. (2013). Green Buyer Behavior: Evidence from Asia Consumers. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 48(4), 413-426. doi:
Febianto, R. (2021, Feb 16). Jumlah sampah melonjak selama pandemi covid-19, ini beberapa penyebabnya. Retrieved from
Fisher, C., Bashyal, S., & Bachman, B. (2012). Demographic impacts on environmentally friendly purchase behaviors. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 20 (3/4),172-184. doi:
Genovaite, L., & Mykolas, S. P. (2019). The importance of environmental knowledge for private and public sphere pro-environmental behavior: modifying the Value-Belief-Norm theory. Sustainability 11(12), 3324. doi:
Ghozali, I. (2005). Multivariate Application with SPSS Program (Aplikasi Multivariate dengan Program SPSS). Semarang(ID): Universitas Diponegoro
Ghozali, I. (2014). Structural Equation Modeling Metode Alternatif Dengan Partial Least Squares (PLS) Edisi 4. Semarang(ID): Universitas Diponegoro
Gifford, R., & Nilsson, A. (2014). Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: A review. International Journal of Psycholog, 49, 141–157. doi:
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2011). Multivariate Data Analysis: Pearson New International Edition. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
Hamid, P. N., & Cheng, S. T. (1995). Predicting antipollution behavior: the role of molar behavioral intentions, past behavior, and locus of control. Environment and Behavior, 27(5),679-698. doi:
Han, H., Lee, J. S., Trang, H. L. T., & Kim, W. (2018). Water conservation and waste reduction management for increasing guest loyalty and green hotel practices. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 75, 58–66. doi:
Hasnah, S. H. (2014). The role of Islamic values on green purchase intention. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 5(3), 379-395. doi:
Hidalgo-Crespo, J., Coello-Piscoa, S., Reyes-Venegasa, H., Bermeo-Garayc , M., Amayad , J. L., Soto, M., & Hidalgo-Crespo, A. (2022). Understanding citizens' environmental concern and their pro-environmental behaviours and attitudes and their influence on energy use. Energy Report, 8, 103-109. doi:
Jensen, B. B. (2002). Knowledge, action and pro-environmental behaviour. Environmental Education Research, 8(3), 325–334. doi:
Johnston, I. (2017). Dumping of Billions of Tonnes of Plastic Waste Is' Uncontrolled Experiment' on Planet Earth, Scientists Warn (July 19). Retrieved from
Kaiser, F. G., & Fuhrer, U. (2003). Ecological behavior's dependency on different forms of knowledge. Applied Psychology, 52, 598–613. doi:
Kaiser, F. G., Ranney, M., Hartig, T., & Bowler, P. A. (1999). Ecological Behavior, Environmental Attitude, and Feelings of Responsibility for the Environment. European Psychologist, 4, 59–74. doi:
Kals, E., Schumacher, D., & Montada, L. (1999). Emotional affinity toward nature as a motivational basis to protect nature. Environment and Behavior, 31(2),178-202. doi:
Khan, F., Ahmed, W., & Najmi, A. (2019). Understanding consumers' behavior intentions towards dealing with the plastic waste: perspective of a developing country. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 142, 49–58. doi:
Kim, Y., & Sejung Marina, C. (2005). Antecedents of green purchase behavior: an examination of collectivism, environmental concern, and PCE. Advances in Consumer Research, 32(1), 592-599.
Klöckner's, C. A. (2013). A comprehensive model of the psychology of environmental behaviour—A meta-analysis. Global Environmental Change, 23(5), 1028-1038. doi:
Kollmuss, A., & Agyeman, J. (2002). Mind the Gap: Why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior?. Environmental Education Research, 8, 239–260. doi:
Liu, P., Teng, M., & Han, C. (2020). How does environmental knowledge translate into pro-environmental behaviors?: The mediating role of environmental attitudes and behavioral intentions. Science of The Total Environment, 728, 138126. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138126
Lizin, S., Van Dael, M., & Van Passel, S. (2017). Battery pack recycling: behavior change interventions derived from an integrative theory of planned behaviour study. Resources Conservation Recycling. 122, 66–82. doi:
Martinsons, M. G., So, S. K., Tin, C., & Wong, D. (1997). Hong Kong and China: emerging markets for environmental products and technologies. Long Range Planning, 30(2), 277-156. doi: 10.1016/S0024-6301(96)00119-7
Maurer, M., & Bogner, F. X. (2020). Modelling environmental literacy with environmental knowledge, values and (reported) behaviour. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 65, 100863. doi: .stueduc.2020.100863
Milfont, T. L., & Duckitt, J. (2004). The structure of environmental attitudes: a first- and second-order confirmatory factor analysis, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24(3), 289-303. doi:
Minister of Environment and Forestry of The Republic of Indonesia. (2019). Regulation of The Minister of Environment and Forestry of The Republic of Indonesia, Number P.75/Menlhk/Setjen/Kum.1/10/2019 Concerning A Road Map of Waste Reduction by Manufacturers (Peraturan Menteri Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan Republik Indonesia, Nomor P.75/Menlhk/Setjen/Kum.1/10/2019 Tentang Peta Jalan Pengurangan Sampah Oleh Produsen). Retrieved from
Moisander, J. (2007). Motivational complexity of green consumerism, International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31(4), 404-409. doi:
Mostafa, M. M. (2007). A hierarchical analysis of the green consciousness of the Egyptian consumer. Psychology and Marketing, 24(5), 445-473. doi:
Ottman, J. A., Stafford, E. R. and Hartman, C. L. (2006). Avoiding green marketing myopia: ways to improve consumer appeal for environmentally preferable products. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 48(5),22-36. doi:
Otto, S., & Pensini, P. (2017). Nature-based environmental education of children: Environmental knowledge and connectedness to nature, together, are related to ecological behavior. Global Environmental Change, 47, 88-94. doi:
Pace, P. (2010). Self-evaluation as a tool in developing environmental responsibility. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability,12, 5–26. doi:
Pieniak, Z., Aertsens, J., & Verbeke, W. (2010). Subjective and objective knowledge as determinants of organic vegetables consumption. Food Quality and Preference, 21, 581–588. doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2010.03.004
Ramayah, T., Lee, J. W. C., & Mohamad, O. (2010). Green product purchase intention: some insights from a developing country. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 54(12),1419-1427. doi:
Révolo Acevedo, R. H., Quispe Reymundo, B.J., Huamán Huamán, C. W., Álvarez Orellana, J. C., Berrocal, E. O., Jauregui Ofracio, J. D., Velarde, Z. S., Quispe Quezada, U. R., Salas, W. R., & Álvarez Montalvan, C. E. (2022). Knowledge, Attitude and Eco-Efficiency Urban Environment in the Inhabitants of the District of Chilca – Peru. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 12(1), 204. doi:
Rizaty, M. A. (2021, July 29). The majority of national waste from household activities in 2020 (Mayoritas sampah nasional dari aktivitas rumah tangga pada 2020). Retrieved from
Schwarte, C. (2003). Environmental protection in islamic law: an overview on potential influences for legal developments in Iraq. In Local Environment, 8(5), 567-577.
Severo, E. A., Guimarães, J. C. F., Dellarmelin, M. L., & Ribeiro, R. P. (2019). The Influence of Social Networks on Environmental Awareness and the Social Responsibility of Generations. Brazilian Business Review, 16(5), 500–518. doi:
Singh, A. K., & Bansal, M. (2012). Green marketing: a study of consumer attitude & environmental concern. Indian Journal of Commerce, 65(2) 273-283.
Situmorang, R. O. P., & Liang, T. C., & Chang, S. C. (2020). The difference of knowledge and behavior of college students on plastic waste problems. Sustainability, 12(19), 7851.
Sliwka, A., Diedrich, M., & Hofer, M. (2006). Citizenship Education, Waxmann Verlag, Munster.
Smith, S. M., Haugtvedt, C. P., & Petty, R. E. (2006). Attitudes and recycling: does the measurement of affect enhance behavioral prediction?. Psychology and Marketing, 11(4), 359-374. doi:
Steg, L., & Vlek, C. (2009). Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: An integrative review and research agenda. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29, 309–317. doi:
Stern, P. C. (2000). New environmental theories: Toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behaviour. Journal of Social Issues, 56(3), 407–424. doi:
Suh, J. H., Dass, K. K., Pagliacci,o L., Taylor M. E., Saxton, J. P., Tan, M., & Mehta, A. C. (1994). Endobronchial radiation therapy with or without neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet laser resection for managing malignant airway obstruction. Cance, 73(10), 2583–2588. doi:;2-h
Syberg, K., Hansen, S. F., Christensen, T. B., & Khan, F. R. (2018). Risk perception of plastic pollution: importance of stakeholder involvement and citizen science. 58, 1–23. doi:
Thi Thu Nguyen, H., Hung, R.J., Lee, C. H., & Thi Thu Nguyen, H. (2018). Determinants of Residents' E-Waste Recycling Behavioral Intention: A Case Study from Vietnam. Sustainability, 11(1), 164. doi:
Tonglet, M., Phillips, P. S. and Read, A. D. (2004). Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to investigate the determinants of recycling behaviour: a case study from Brixworth, UK. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 41(3), 191-214. doi:
Vermillion, L. J., & Peart, J. (2010). Green marketing: making sense of the situation. Allied Academies International Conference: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Studies, 15 (1), 68-72.
Verplanken, B., & Aarts, H. (1999). Habit, attitude, and planned behavior: is habit an empty construct or an interesting case of goal-directed automaticity?. European Review of Social Psychology, 10, 101-134. doi:
Wang, Z., Guo, D., & Wang, X. (2016). Determinants of residents'e-waste recycling behaviour intentions: evidence from China. J. Clean. Prod, 137, 850–860. doi:


Nihayatu Aslamatis Solekah (Primary Contact)
Tanti Handriana
Indrianawati Usman
Author Biography

Tanti Handriana, Faculty of Economics and Business, Airlangga University Surabaya, Indonesia

Faculty of Economics and Business

Solekah N. A., Handriana T., & Usman I. (2022). Millennials’ Deals with Plastic: The Effect of Natural Environmental Orientation, Environmental Knowledge, and Environmental Concern on Willingness to Reduce Plastic Waste. Journal of Consumer Sciences, 7(2), 116-134.

Article Details