Perlakuan Uap Panas dan Suhu Penyimpanan untuk Mempertahankan Mutu Buah Mangga Arumanis (Mangifera indica L.)

Rimba Lestari, Rokhani Hasbullah, Idham Sakti Harahap

Abstract


Abstract
Pests fruit fly attacks could be an obstacles to the export of fruits. Heat treatment is needed to disinfest the fruit fly without affecting the fruit quality and safe for health. The objectives of this research were (1) to analyze the mortality of Bactrocera papayae fruit flies by in-vitro and by in-vivo, and (2) to analyze the
effect of vapor heat treatment (VHT) and storage temperature on quality of Arumanis mango. The results showed that the 100% mortality in-vitro of fruit fly B. papayae at temperature 46 oC was 10 minutes. While 100% mortality in-vivo at temperature 47 oC was 20 minutes. Exposure time of VHT, storage temperature,
and their interaction didn’t significantly afffect weight loss, total soluble solid, hardness, but significantly affected vitamin C. VHT didn’t cause physiological damage which the fruit is still undergoing a process of normal respiration. The fruits on storage temperature of 13±2 oC can last for 18 and 28±2 °C just can last for
9 days. VHT at temperature of 47 °C for 25-30 minutes was effective to disinfestation of fruit flies infested inside the Arumanis mango and VHT followed by low temperature storage (13±2 oC) was able to maintain mango quality during storage.

 

Abstrak
Serangan hama lalat buah dapat menjadi kendala dalam ekspor buah-buahan. Perlakuan panas dibutuhkan untuk mendisinfestasikan lalat buah tanpa menurunkan mutu buah dan aman bagi kesehatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (1) mengkaji tingkat mortalitas telur lalat buah Bactrocera papayae secara invitro
dan in-vivo, dan (2) menganalisa pengaruh lama perlakuan uap panas (vapor heat treatment/VHT) dan suhu penyimpanan terhadap mutu mangga Arumanis. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa 100% mortalitas lalat buah B. papayae secara in-vitro pada suhu 46 oC adalah selama 10 menit. Sedangkan 100% mortalitas secara in-vivo pada suhu 47 oC adalah selama 20 menit. Lama VHT dan suhu penyimpanan serta interaksinya tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap susut bobot, total padatan terlarut, dan kekerasan, tetapi berpengaruh signifikan terhadap vitamin C. Perlakuan panas tidak menyebabkan kerusakan fisiologis
di mana buah masih mengalami proses respirasi secara normal. Buah pada penyimpanan suhu 13±2 oC buah dapat bertahan selama 18 hari dan pada suhu 28±2 oC hanya bertahan selama 9 hari. VHT pada suhu 47 oC selama 25-30 menit efektif untuk membunuh lalat buah yang terinfestasi dalam mangga
Arumanis dan VHT yang diikuti oleh penyimpanan suhu rendah (13±2 oC) dapat mempertahankan mutu buah selama penyimpanan.


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