Co-Production of Knowledge as a Basis of Behavioural Change in Indonesian Sanitation Services: The Case of Sumberdawesari Village, Pasuruan Regency, East Java

Keywords: behaviour change, co-production, knowledge, life project, water and sanitation services


This study is focused on the change in new behaviour and routines on the issues of safe water and sanitation in Indonesia. The aim of this study is to explain the deconstruction of people's consciousness and societal knowledge on wastewater treatment plant (IPAL) facilities and the resulting behavioural change. By positioning programmes of safe water, sanitation, and the local value of healthy living as the “life projects”, this article attempts to re-examine the position of local communities in this project. Life projects are programmes that adhere to the local histories of communities in perceiving ‘development’. Life projects are premised on densely and uniquely woven 'threads' of landscapes, memory, expectations, and desire. In this regard, this article tries to disclose the participation of local communities in planning, managing and integrating local values and global visions of proper sanitation development programs in their villages. This study was a micro one conducted at Sumberdawesari village, in Pasuruan, East Java. Sumberdawesari is one of the IWINS-USAID’s pilot projects of the communal IPAL programme. This research utilizes the life history approach with the data collection techniques of observation, biography, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews. The nature of this study focuses on the desire to share information about low-level experiences of local communities regarding the availability and the sustainable management of water and sanitation toward a healthy and self-reliance settlement. This research finds the increased awareness of the population in implementing sanitation development programs at the level of habitus, individual, household, community, and social structure through the dimensions of contextual, managerial and technical knowledge.


Adams, E. A., & Boateng, G. O. (2018). Are urban informal communities capable of co-production? The influence of community–public partnerships on water access in Lilongwe, Malawi. Environment and Urbanization, 30(2), 461–480.

Bajracharya, D. (2003). Myanmar experiences in sanitation and hygiene promotion: lessons learned and future directions. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 13(sup1), S141–S152.

Becker, S., Naumann, M., & Moss, T. (2017). Between coproduction and commons: understanding initiatives to reclaim urban energy provision in Berlin and Hamburg. Urban Research & Practice, 10(1), 63–85.

Beresford, P. (2019). Public Participation in Health and Social Care: Exploring the Co-production of Knowledge. Frontiers in Sociology, 3.

Bourchier, D. (2010). Kisah adat dalam imajinasi politik Indonesia dan kebangkitan masa kini. In J. S. Davidson, D. Henley, & S. Moniaga (Eds.), Adat dalam politik Indonesia (pp. 125–142). Yayasan Obor Indonesia.

Bovaird, T. (2007). Beyond engagement and participation: User and community coproduction of public services. Public Administration Review, 67(5), 846–860.

BPS. (2019). Persentase rumah tangga menurut provinsi dan memiliki akses terhadap sanitasi layak, 1993-2018. Badan Pusat Statistik.

Cameron, L., Olivia, S., & Shah, M. (2019). Scaling up sanitation: Evidence from an RCT in Indonesia. Journal of Development Economics, 138, 1–16.

Cameron, L., Shah, M., & Olivia, S. (2013). Impact evaluation of a large-scale rural sanitation project in Indonesia (No. WPS6360; Policy Researh Working Paper).

Castán Broto, V., & Neves Alves, S. (2018). Intersectionality challenges for the co-production of urban services: notes for a theoretical and methodological agenda. Environment and Urbanization, 30(2), 367–386.

Connelly, F. M., & Clandinin, D. J. (1990). Stories of Experience and Narrative Inquiry. Educational Researcher, 19(5), 2–14.

Denzin, N. K. (1989). Interpretive Biography (Qualitativ). Sage.

Engel, S., & Susilo, A. (2014). Shaming and sanitation in Indonesia: A return to colonial public health practices? Development and Change, 45(1), 157–178.

Etzioni, A. (1968). The active society: A theory of societal and political processes. The Free Press.

Farah, S., Karim, M., Akther, N., Begum, M., & Begum, N. (2015). Knowledge and practice of personal hygiene and sanitation: A study in selected slums of Dhaka City. Delta Medical College Journal, 3(2), 68–73.

Field-IWINS. (2016). Petunjuk lapangan: Pelatihan pemandu sekolah lapangan air bersih dan sanitasi. IWINS.

Field Indonesia Foundation. (2016). Initiative for Water and Sanitation Improvement through Networking Support (IWINS) - 5th Semi Annual Report. Field Indonesia.

Filipe, A., Renedo, A., & Marston, C. (2017). The co-production of what? Knowledge, values, and social relations in health care. PLOS Biology, 15(5), 1–6.

Goodley, D., Lawthom, R., Clough, P., & Moore, M. (2004). Researching Life Stories: Methods, Theory and Analyses in a Biographical Age. Taylor & Francis.

Hagemaster, J. N. (1992). Life history: A qualitative method of research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17(9), 1122–1128.

Harris, B., & Helgertz, J. (2019). Urban sanitation and the decline of mortality. The History of the Family, 24(2), 207–226.

Hatch, J. A., & Wisniewski, R. (Eds.). (1995). Life history and narrative (Qualitativ). The Falmer Fress (A Member of the Taylor & Francis Group).

Joshi, A., & Moore, M. (2004). Institutionalised co-production: Unorthodox public service delivery in challenging environments. Journal of Development Studies, 40(4), 31–49.

Kabupaten Pasuruan. (2019). Peta Kabupaten Pasuruan. Profil Kabupaten Pasuran.

Kementerian-PPN/Bappenas. (2017). Pilar pembangunan lingkungan (Metadata I). Kementerian PPN & Bappenas Republik Indonesia.

KPUPR. (2018). Cipta Karya mengalokasikan DAK tahun 2018 Rp. 2.160 miliar untuk air minum. Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum Dan Perumahan Rakyat.

Kulkarni, S., O’Reilly, K., & Bhat, S. (2017). No relief: lived experiences of inadequate sanitation access of poor urban women in India. Gender & Development, 25(2), 167–183.

Lewis-Beck, M., Bryman, A., & Futing Liao, T. (2004). The SAGE encyclopedia of social science research methods.

Li, T. M. (2005). Beyond ‘the state’ and failed schemes. American Anthropologist, 107(3), 383–394.

Mara, D. D. (2003). Water, sanitation and hygiene for the health of developing nations. Public Health, 117(6), 452–456.

McCarthy, P. (2003). Urban slums reports: The case of Jakarta, Indonesia. In UN-Habitat (Ed.), The challenge of slums: Global report on human settlements 2003 (pp. 195–228). UN-Habitat and Earthscan Publications. Ltd.

McFarlane, C., Desai, R., & Graham, S. (2014). Informal urban sanitation: Everyday life, poverty, and comparison. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 104(5), 989–1011.

Megías, M. E. P., García, M. J. M., & Arcos, D. P. (2017). Life Stories as a Biographic-narrative Method. How to Listen to Silenced Voices. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 237, 962–967.

Mills, J. E., & Cumming, O. (2016). The impact of water, sanitation and hygiene on key health and social outcomes: Review of evidence. Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity (SHARE) & UNICEF.

Mitlin, D. (2018). Beyond contention: urban social movements and their multiple approaches to secure transformation. Environment and Urbanization, 30(2), 557–574.

Mitlin, D., & Bartlett, S. (2018). Editorial: Co-production – key ideas. Environment and Urbanization, 30(2), 355–366.

Moretto, L., Faldi, G., Ranzato, M., Rosati, F. N., Ilito Boozi, J.-P., & Teller, J. (2018). Challenges of water and sanitation service co-production in the global South. Environment and Urbanization, 30(2), 425–443.

Moretto, L., & Ranzato, M. (2017). A socio-natural standpoint to understand coproduction of water, energy and waste services. Urban Research & Practice, 10(1), 1–21.

Newberry, J. (2006). Back door Java: State formation and the domestic in working class Java. University of Toronto Press.

Novenanto, A. (2018). Kolaborasi Jemaris-Akademisi untuk tata kelola sanitasi dan air bersih yang berkelanjutan di wilayah kota dan kabupaten Pasuruan.

Ojermark, A. (2007). Presenting life histories: A literature review and annotated bibliography (No. 101; CPRC Working Paper).

Owusu, G. (2010). Social effects of poor sanitation and waste management on poor urban communities: a neighborhood‐specific study of Sabon Zongo, Accra. Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability, 3(2), 145–160.

Roberts, B. (2002). Biographical Research. Open University Press.

Scott, J. C. (1998). Seeing like a state: How certain schemes to improve the human condition have failed. Yale University Press.

Susser, I., & Tonnelat, S. (2013). Transformative cities. Focaal, 2013(66), 105–121.

Sutopo, A., Arthati, D. F., & Rahmi, U. A. (2014). Kajian indikator sustainable development golas (SDGs) (A. Said & I. Budiati (Eds.)). Badan Pusat Statistik.

Turnhout, E., Metze, T., Wyborn, C., Klenk, N., & Louder, E. (2020). The politics of co-production: participation, power, and transformation. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 42, 15–21.

United Nations [UN]. (2015). Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. United Nations.

Vandemoortele, J. (2018). From simple-minded MDGs to muddle-headed SDGs. Development Studies Research, 5(1), 83–89.

Wasonga, J., Olango, C. O., & Kioli, F. (2014). Improving households knowledge and attitude on water, sanitation, and hygiene practices through school health programme in Nyakach, Kisumu County in Western Kenya. Journal of Anthropology, 1–6.

WHO/UNICEF. (2019a). Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and hygiene 2000-2017: Special focus on inequalities.

WHO/UNICEF. (2019b). WASH in health care facilities: Global Baseline Report 2019.

How to Cite
SuyadnyaI. W., NovenantoA., & TirtayaniL. A. (2022). Co-Production of Knowledge as a Basis of Behavioural Change in Indonesian Sanitation Services: The Case of Sumberdawesari Village, Pasuruan Regency, East Java . Sodality: Jurnal Sosiologi Pedesaan, 10(1), 91-105.