‘From Rubber to Oil Palm’: Livelihood Structural Transformation of Local and Transmigrant Farmer Households in Minangkabau

  • Elva Wati
  • Arya Hadi Dharmawan
  • Didin S Damanhuri
  • Titik Sumarti
Keywords: livelihood structure, transformation, typology


This study aims to analyze the transformation of livelihood structures in local and transmigrant farmer households that occur due to the entry of oil palm. Oil palm has become a new agricultural commodity that it is believed to provide better income for farmers. This research was conducted with a quantitative and qualitative approach. Quantitative data collection was carried out through a survey of 63 farm households. Meanwhile, qualitative data collection was carried out through in-depth interviews. The results of the study indicate that the transformation of rubber commodities to oil palm in general supports the economy of farmer households, which are income increases, livelihood diversity, and welfare increases. In addition, the transformation also has an impact on consumptive and materialistic lifestyle changes in farm households and the formation of farmer household typologies based on post-transformation livelihoods.


Ahrends, Antje, Peter M. Hollingsworth, Alan D. Ziegler, Jefferson M. Fox, Huafang Chen, Yufang Su, and Jianchu Xu. 2015. “Current Trends of Rubber Plantation Expansion May Threaten Biodiversity and Livelihoods.” Global Environmental Change 34:48–58.

Baisa, Goitom Abrea. 2009. “Commercialization of Smallholder Farming: Determinants Andwelfare Outcomes : A Cross-Sectional Study in Enderta District, Tigrai, Ethiopia.” University of Agder.

Barrett, C. B., T. Reardon, and P. Webb. 2001. “Nonfarm Income Diversification and Household Livelihood Strategies in Rural Africa: Concepts, Dynamics, and Policy Implications.” Food Policy 26(4):315–31.

Bou Dib, Jonida, Vijesh V. Krishna, Zulkifli Alamsyah, and Matin Qaim. 2018. “Land-Use Change and Livelihoods of Non-Farm Households: The Role of Income from Employment in Oil Palm and Rubber in Rural Indonesia.” Land Use Policy 76:828–38.

BPS. 2016. Kabupaten Solok Selatan Dalam Angka 2016. Sukabumi: Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Solok Selatan.

BPS. 2018. Kabupaten Solok Selatan Dalam Angka 2018. Sukabumi: Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Solok Selatan.

Bragança, Arthur. 2018. “The Economic Consequences of the Agricultural Expansion in Matopiba.” Revista Brasileira de Economia 72(2):161–85.

Byerlee, Derek, James Stevenson, and Nelson Villoria. 2014. “Does Intensification Slow Crop Land Expansion or Encourage Deforestation?” Global Food Security 3(2):92–98.

Cervantes-Godoy, Dalila and Joe Dewbre. 2010. Economic Importance of Agriculture for Poverty Reduction. No. 23. France.

Christensen, Raymond P. and Harold T. Yee. 1964. “The Role of Agricultural Productivity in Economic Development.” Journal of Farm Economics 46(5):1051–61.

Creswell, J. W. 2013. Research Design Pendekatan Kualitatif, Kuantitatif Dan Mixed. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Dharmawan, Arya Hadi. 2007. “Sistem Penghidupan Dan Nafkah Pedesaan: Pandangan Sosiologi Nafkah (Livelihood Sociology) Mazhab Barat Dan Mazhab Bogor.” Sodality: Jurnal Sosiologi Pedesaan 1(2):169–92.

Dharmawan, Arya Hadi, Dyah Ita Mardiyaningsih, and Bayu Eka Yulian. 2016. Ekspansi Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Dan Perubahan Sosial, Ekonomi Dan Ekologi Pedesaan: Studi Kasus Di Kutai Kartanegara. No. 01. Bogor.

Dharmawan, Arya Hadi, Bayu Eka Yulian, and Faris Rahmadian. 2016. Struktur Agraria Dan Agroekosistem Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Di Kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara. No. 02. Bogor.

Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan. 2016. Statistik Perkebunan Indonesia 2015-2017 Kelapa Sawit. Jakarta: Sekretariat Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan.

Ellis, Frank. 1998. “Household Strategies and Rural Livelihood Diversification.” Journal of Development Studies 35(1):1–38.

Ellis, Frank. 1999. “Rural Livelihood Diversity in Developing Countries: Evidence and Policy Implications.” in Natural Resources Perspective. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Euler, Michael, Vijesh Krishna, Stefan Schwarze, Hermanto Siregar, and Matin Qaim. 2017. “Oil Palm Adoption, Household Welfare, and Nutrition Among Smallholder Farmers in Indonesia.” World Development 93:219–35.

Hansson, Helena, Richard Ferguson, Christer Olofsson, and Leena Rantamäki-Lahtinen. 2013. “Farmers’ Motives for Diversifying Their Farm Business - The Influence of Family.” Journal of Rural Studies 32:240–50.

Hidayah, Nursantri, Arya Hadi Dharmawan, and Baba Barus. 2016. “Ekspansi Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Dan Perubahan Sosial Ekologi Pedesaan.” Sodality: Jurnal Sosiologi Pedesaan 4(3):249–56.

Martin, Sarah M. and Kai Lorenzen. 2016. “Livelihood Diversification in Rural Laos.” World Development 83:231–43.

Marx, Karl. 1993. A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy. edited by M. Dobb and S. W. Ryazanskaya. Moscow: Progress Publishers.

McCarthy, John F. 2010. “Processes of Inclusion and Adverse Incorporation: Oil Palm and Agrarian Change in Sumatra, Indonesia.” Journal of Peasant Studies 37(4):821–50.

Meert, H., Guido Van Huylenbroeck, T. Vernimmen, M. Bourgeois, and E. van Hecke. 2005. “Farm Household Survival Strategies and Diversification on Marginal Farms.” Journal of Rural Studies 21(1):81–97.

Mingorría, Sara, Gonzalo Gamboa, Berta Martín-López, and Esteve Corbera. 2014. “The Oil Palm Boom: Socio-Economic Implications for Q’eqchi’ Households in the Polochic Valley, Guatemala.” Environment, Development and Sustainability 16(4):841–71.

Mullan, Katrina, Erin Sills, Subhrendu K. Pattanayak, and Jill Caviglia-Harris. 2018. “Converting Forests to Farms: The Economic Benefits of Clearing Forests in Agricultural Settlements in the Amazon.” Environmental and Resource Economics 71(2):427–55.

Obidzinski, Krystof, Rubeta Andriani, Heru Komarudin, and Agus Andrianto. 2012. “Environmental and Social Impacts of Oil Palm Plantations and Their Implications for Biofuel Production in Indonesia.” Ecology and Society 17(1):25.

Pacheco, Pablo. 2006. “Agricultural Expansion and Deforestation in Lowland Bolivia: The Import Substitution versus the Structural Adjustment Model.” Land Use Policy 23(3):205–25.

Pokja Sanitasi Kabupaten Solok. 2013. Buku Putih Sanitasi Kabupaten Solok Selatan Tahun 2013. Sukabumi: Pokja Sanitasi Kabupaten Solok Selatan.

Richins, Marsha L. and Scott Dawson. 1992. “A Consumer Values Orientation for Materialism and Its Measurement: Scale Development and Validation.” Journal of Consumer Research 19(3):303–16.

Tambo, Justice A. 2016. “Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change and Variability in North-East Ghana.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 17:85–94.

Weltin, Meike, Ingo Zasada, Christian Franke, Annette Piorr, Meri Raggi, and Davide Viaggi. 2017. “Analysing Behavioural Differences of Farm Households: An Example of Income Diversification Strategies Based on European Farm Survey Data.” Land Use Policy 62:172–84.

Wirawan, I. B. 2014. Teori-Teori Sosial Dalam Tiga Paradigma Fakta Sosial, Defenisi Sosial & Perilaku Sosial. Jakarta: Prenadamedia Group.

How to Cite
WatiE., DharmawanA. H., DamanhuriD. S., & SumartiT. (2019). ‘From Rubber to Oil Palm’: Livelihood Structural Transformation of Local and Transmigrant Farmer Households in Minangkabau. Sodality: Jurnal Sosiologi Pedesaan, 7(2), 86-94. https://doi.org/10.22500/sodality.v7i2.25913

Most read articles by the same author(s)

<< < 1 2 3 4 > >>