Yan Maruanaya, Prof. Alex Retraubun, S. F. Tuhumury, James Abrahamzs


Whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) are the largest fish in the world with high tourist potential, as well as a relatively high threat of extinction if not managed properly. The Kwatisore Waters are one of the habitats of whale sharks in Indonesia that are seen from the frequent appearance of whale sharks and become a unique phenomenon that is every day of the year, so the area has opportunities for tourism development. The study aimed to examine the dietary characteristics of whale sharks and their aggregations, in particular the total number of occurrences and the number of individual whale sharks in the Kwatisore Waters. Data collection in this study using primary data. The study was conducted from July to September 2020. The method of data collection is carried out once every month (time series) through the collection to review the diet between individual whale sharks is done by observing directly when whale sharks rise to the surface of the water and are in a chart that amounts to 5 units of fishing equipment. The results showed that there were 275 whale sharks appearances, consisting of 18 individuals, the number of occurrences and the number of individual whale sharks depended heavily on the catch of anchovies by each fishing equipment. The appearance of whale sharks within the Sea Tenure of Akudiomi Village. The appearance of the dominant whale sharks occurs in the morning and the percentage of appearance is 100% male with a total length size ranging from 3 to 7.5 meters.


Anna, Z. & D.S Saputera. 2017. Economic valuation of whale shark tourism in Cenderawasih Bay National Park, Papua, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 18(3): 1026-1034. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d180321
Boldrocchi, G. & R. Bettinetti 2019. Whale Shark Foraging on Baitfish off Djibouti. Marine Biodiversity, 49(4): 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-018-00934-8
Borrell, A., L. Cardona, R.P. Kumarran, & A. Aguilar. 2011. Trophic ecology of elasmobranchs caught off Gujarat, India, as inferred from stable isotopes. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68(3): 547-554. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsq170
Brunnschweiler, J.M., H. Baensch, S.J. Pierce, & D.W. Sims. 2009. Deep-diving behaviour of a whale shark Rhincodon typus during long-distance movement in the western Indian Ocean. Journal of Fish Biology,74: 706-714. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2008.02155.x
Clark, E. & D.R. Nelson. 1997. Young whale shark, Rhincodon typus, feeding on a copepod bloom Near La Paz, Mexico. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 50: 63–73. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007312310127
Cliff, G., M.D.A. Reade, A.P. Aitken, & G.E. Charter. 2007. Arial census of whale shark (Rhincodon typus) on The Northern KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa. Fisheries Research, 84: 41-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.11.012
Colman, J.G. 1997. A review of the biology and ecology of the whale shark. Jurnal of Fish Biology, 51(6): 1219-1234. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1997.tb01138.x
Compagno, L.J.V. 2001. Sharks of the words: an annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Bullhead, Mackerel, and Carpet Sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes) FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes, 1(1): 1-250.
Copping, J.P., B.D. Stewart, C.J. McClean, J. Hancock, & R. Rees. 2018. Does Bathymetry Drive Coastal Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus) Aggregations?. Journal PeerJ, 6: p.e4904. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4904
Diena, A., M.M. Kamal, & Y Wardiatno. 2018. Keterkaitan parameter fisik-kimia perairan dengan kemunculan hiu paus (Rhincodon typus) Di Perairan Teluk Cenderawasih Papua. Prosiding Simposium Nasional Hiu Pari Indonesia Ke-2 Tahun 2018. Hal. 279-284.
Djunaidi, A., J. Jompa, N. Nadiarti., A. Bahar., S. Tilahunga., D. Lilienfeld., & M.S. Hani. 2020. Analysis of two whale shark watching destinations in Indonesia: status and ecotourism potential. Biodiversitas. 21(9): 4911-4923. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d210958
Eckert, S. & B.S. Stewart. 2001. Telemetry and satellite tracking of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the sea of Cortez, Mexico, and the North Pacific Ocean. Environmental and Biologi of Fishes, 60(1): 299-308. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1007674716437
Enita, S.Y., K. Kunarso, & A. Wirasatriya. 2017. Identifikasi faktor oseanografi terhadap kemunculan hiu paus (Rhincodon typus) di Perairan Kwatisore, Kabupaten Nabire, Papua. Jurnal Oseanografi UNDIP, 6(4): 564–572. https://ejournal3.undip.ac.id/index.php/joce/article/view/20403
Froase, R. & D. Pauly. 2006. Rhincodon typus. FishBase. http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiu_Paus
Gunn, J.S., J.D. Stevens, T.L.O. Davis, & B.M. Norman. 1999. Observation on the shortterm movements and behaviour of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Marine Biology. 135: 553-559.
Hasan, A. & A. Sianipar. 2019. Monitoring Populasi Hiu Paus (Rhincodon typu) Di Perairan Kaimana, Provinsi Papua Barat. Laporan Teknis Coservation International. 10 p.
Himawan, M.R., B.A. Noor, C. Tania, & A. Wijonarmo. 2015. Sex and size range composition of whale shark (Rhincodon typus) and their sighting behaviour in relation with fishermen lift-net within cenderawasi bay National Park, Indonesia. AACL Bioflux) 8(2): 123-133. http://www.bioflux.com.ro/docs/2015.123-133.pdf
Himawan, M.R., C. Tania, S.N. Fadela, & A. Bramandito. 2017. CLP project ID & Project title: CLP ID03247215 & Whale Shark Indonesia Project. Conservation Leadership Programme: Final Report. 30 p.
Hoffmayer, E.R., J.A. McKinney, J.S. Franks, J.M. Hendon, W.B. Driggers, B.J. Falterman, B. Galuardi, & M.E. Byrne. 2021. Seasonal occurrence, horizontal movements, and habitat use patterns of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) in the Gulf of Mexico. Journal Frontiers in Marine Science. 598515(7): 1-19. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2020.598515
Ihsan, E.N., S.Y. Enita, Kusarno, & A. Wirasatriya. 2017. Oceanographic Factors in Fishing Ground Location of Anchovy at Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, West Papua : Are These Factors Have an Effect of Whale Sharks Appearance Frequencies? 3rd International Conference on Tropical and Coastal Region Eco Development 2017. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 116(2018): 012017. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/116/1/012017
Jentewo, Y.A., R Bawole, T.S. Tururaja, Mudjirahayu, Z. Parrinding, H.R. Siga, M. Dailami, & A.H.A. Toha. 2021. Sizing and scarring of whale shark (Rhincodon typus Smith, 1828) in te Cenderawasih Bay National Park. Jurnal ikhtiologi Indonesia, 21(3): 199-213. https://doi.org/10.32491/jii.v21i3.587
Joung, S.J., C.C. Chen, E. Clark, S. Uchida, & W.Y.P. Huang. 1996. The whale shark, Rhincodon typus, is a livebearer: 300 embryos found in one megamamma supreme. Biology of Fishes, 46(3): 219-223. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00004997
Kaikini, A.S, R.V. Ramamohana & M.H. Dhulkhed. 1959. A note on the whale shark Rhincodon typus Smith, stranded off Mangalore. J Mar Biol Assoc India 4: 92−93. http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/id/eprint/1599
Kamal, A.M., Y. Wardianto, & N.S. Noviyanti. 2016. Habitat conditions and potential food itms during the appearance of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) in Probolinggo waters, Madura Strait Indonesia. The 4th International Whale shark conference. https://doi.org/10.5330/qproc.2016.iwsc4.27
Kapinangsih, P., D.P. Wijayanti, & A. Sabdono. 2022. Tingkah laku dan kemunculan hiu paus (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) dipantai bentar Probolinggo. Marine Research, 11(1): 49-60. https://doi.org/10.14710/jmr.v11i1.31727
Macena, B.C.L. & F.H.V. Hazin. 2016. Whale shark (Rhincodon typus) seasonal occurrence, abundance and demographic structure in the Mid-Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Plos one, 11 (10): 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0164440
Maruanaya, Y., A.S.W. Retraubun, S.F. Tuhumury, & J. Ambrahamsz. 2021. Characteristics and the appearance of new whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) as a unique phenomenon in the kwatisore waters within the Cenderawasih Bay National Park area, Papua. Journal of Aquatic Science, 2(3): 24-40. http://ejurnal.ung.ac.id/index.php/tjas
Meyers, M.M., M.P. Francis, M. Erdmann, R. Constantine, & A. Sianipar. 2020. Movement patterns of whale sharks in Cenderawasih Bay, Indonesia, Revealed Through Long-Term Satellite Tagging. Journal Compilation, CSIRO, 1: 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1071/PC19035
McKinney, J.A., R.S. Fulford, W. Wu, E.R. Hoffmayer, & J.M. Hedon. 2012. Feeding habitat of the whale shark Rhincodon typus in The Northern Gulf of Mexico Determinated using species distribution modelling. Mar. Ecol., 458: 199-211. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps09777
Motta, P.J., M. Maslanka, R.E. Heuter, R.L. Davis, R. de la Parra, S.L. Mulvany, M.L. Habegger, J.A. Strother, K.R. Mara, J.M. Gardiner, J.P. Tymniski, & L.D Zeiger. 2010. Feeding anatomy, filter-feeding rate, and diet of whael shark Rhincodon typus during surface ram filter feeding off The Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Zoologi, 113(4): 199-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.zool.2009.12.001
Murdani, N.H., B. Masyud, & F. Yulianda. 2018. Bioecological and ecotourism development strategy of whale shark-Rhincodon Typus in Teluk Cenderwasih National Park. Media Konservasi, 23(1): 77–84. https://doi.org/10.29243/medkon.23.1.77-84
Norman, B.M. & J.D. Stevens. 2007. Size and maturity status of the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) at Ningaloo Reef in Western Australia. Elsevier ScienceDirect. Fisheries Research 84(1): 81-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.11.015
Prihadi, D.J, A. Nuryana, W. Lili, Y.N. Ihsan & E.N Ihsan. 2017. Daya dukung lingkungan dan analisis kesesuaian pada wisata hiu paus (Rhyncodon typus) di Taman Nasional Teluk Cenderawasih, Kabupaten Nabire. Jurnal Akuatika Indonesia, 2(2): 172-186. https://doi.org/10.24198/jaki.v2i2.23418
Ranintyari, M., Sunarto, M.L. Syamsuddin, & S. Astuty. 2018. Distribusi spasial hiu paus (Rhyncodon typus) di Kawasan Taman Nasional Teluk Cenderawasih. Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan, 9(2): 49-53. https://jurnal.unpad.ac.id/jpk/article/view/20514/9374
Rezzolla, D. & T. Storai. 2011. Whale Shark Expedition: Observations on Rhincodon typus from Arta Bay, Gulf of Tadjoura, Djibouti Republic, Southern Red Sea. Cybium, 34(2): 195-206. http://www.mnhn.fr/sfi/cybium/index.html
Robinson, D.P., M.Y. Jaidah, R.W. Jabado., K.L. Brooks, N.M.N El-Din, A.A. A. Malki, K. Elmeer, P.A. McCormick, A.C. Henderson, S.J. Pierce, & R.F.G. Ormond. 2013. whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, aggregate around offshore platforms in Qatari Waters of the Arabian Gulf to Feed on Fish Spawn. Journal Plos One, 8(3): 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058255
Sadili, D., Dharmadi, Fahmi, Sarmintohadi, I. Ramli, T. Casandra, A. Beny, Prabowo, H. Rasdiana, M.Y. Miasto, R. Puspitasari, N. Terry, M. Monintja, & S. Annisa. 2015. Pedoman umum monitoring hiu paus di Indonesia. Penerbit Direktorat Konservasi Kawasan dan Jenis Ikan, Ditjen Kelautan, Pesisir dan Pulau-Pulau Kecil, Kementerian Kelautan Dan Perikanan Republik Indonesia, Jakarta. 48 p.
Saroy, B.G. & A. Saiful. 2018. Meretas ekowisata berbasis konservasi tradisional di Taman Nasional Teluk Cenderawasih. Penerbit Balai Besar Taman Nasional Teluk Cenderawasih. Direktorat Jenderal Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam dan Ekosistem, Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup Dan Kehutanan, Jakarta. 103 p.
Sequeira, A., C. Mellin., D. Rowat., M.G. Meekan., & C.J.A. Bradshaw. 2012. Ocean-scale prediction of whale shark distribution. Diversity and Distributions, 18(5): 504-518. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00853.x
Silas, E.G. 1963. On a recent capture of a whale shark (Rhincodon typus Smith) at Tuticorin, with a note on information to be obtained on whale sharks from Indian waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India, 5(1): 153-157. https://doi.org/10.17017/jfish.v5i3.2017.256
Speed, C.W., M.G. Meeken, & C.J.A. Bradshaw. 2007. Spot the match-wildlife photo-identification using information theory. Frontiers in Zoology, 4(2): 1-11 https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-9994-4-2
Stevens, J.D. 2007. Whale shark (Rhincodon typus) biology and ecology: a review of the primary literature. Fisheries Research, 84: 4-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.11.008
Stewart, B.S. 2014. Whale Shark Research Ecological Research and Outreach in Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, West Papua and Papua, Indonesia, November 2012–November 2013. Hubbs-Sea Word Research Institute Technical Report 2013-382:1-18.
Sudjana, 1996. Metoda Statistika. Edisi 6. Tarsito, Bandung. 310 p.
Suruan, S., B. Pranata, C. Tania, & M.M. Kamal. 2016. Photo ID-based assessment of the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) population in Kwatisore, Wondama Bay, West Papua, Indonesia (The 4th International Whale Shark Conference), 1(2): 1-2 https://doi.org/10.5339/qproc.2016.iwsc4.61
Syah, A.F., Musrifah & H. Cahyono. 2018. Permodelan daerah potensial kemunculan hiu paus (Rhincodon typus) menggunakan data penginderaan jauh di perairan Probilinggo, Jawa Timur. Perikanan Indonesia, 24(3): 209-216. https://doi.org/10.15578/jppi.24.3.2018.209-216
Tania, C. & B.A. Noor. 2014. Panduan Teknis Pemantauan Hiu Paus di Taman Nasional Teluk Cenderawasih. Versi 1. WWF Indonesia. 42 p.
Taylor, J.G. 2007. Ram filter-feeding and nocturnal feeding of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) at Nangaloo reef, Western Australia. Fisheries Research, 84(1): 65-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.11.014
Tiro, M.A. 1999. Analisis Data Frekuensi dengan Chi-Kuadrat. Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar. 30 p.
Toha, A.H.A., Ambariyanto, A. Anwar, J.B. Setiawan, & R. Bawole. 2018. Hiu Paus Teluk Cenderawasih: Riset dan Monitoring. Balai Besar Taman Nasional Teluk Cenderawasih, Manokwari. 284 p.
Toha A.H.A., Ambariyanto, A. Anwar, J.B. Setiawan, R. Bawole. 2019. Hiu Paus Teluk Cenderawasih: Riset dan Monitoring. Balai Besar Taman Nasional Teluk Cenderawasih. Jakarta. 284 p.
Venegas, R.D.L.P., R. Hueter, J.G. Cano, J, Tyminski, J.G. Remolina, M. Maslanka, A. Ormos, L. Weigt, B. Carlson, & A. Dove. 2011. An unprecedented aggregation of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in Mexican coastal waters of the Caribbean Sea. PloS One 6: e18994. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018994
Walpole, R.E. 1995. Pengantar Statistika. Edisi Ke-3. Penerbit P.T. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta. 310 p.
Wolfson, F.H. 1983. Records of seven juveniles of the whale shark, Rhiniodon typus. Journal of Fish Biology, 22(6): 647–655. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1983.tb04224.x


Yan Maruanaya
omaruanaya@gmail.com (Primary Contact)
Prof. Alex Retraubun
S. F. Tuhumury
James Abrahamzs
MaruanayaY., RetraubunP. A., TuhumuryS. F., & AbrahamzsJ. (2022). FEEDING HABITS AND FREQUENCY OF APPEARANCE OF WHALE SHARKS (Rhincodon typus) IN THE KWATISORE WATERS IN THE SEA TENURE OF AKUDIOMI VILLAGE LOCATED WITHIN CENDERAWASIH BAY NATIONAL PARK. Jurnal Ilmu Dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis, 14(1), 109-129. https://doi.org/10.29244/jitkt.v14i1.39648

Article Details