Rima Hidayati, Nuri Andarwulan , Dian Herawati


Color is one of quality parameters that affects consumer intention to purchase ready to drink (RTD) green tea. Consumers expect RTD green tea to have yellow greenish color, however the color becomes brown and darker during the shelf life. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phosphate mix addition to water prior to green tea leaves extraction on pH, color, and the tannin in tea extract, pre-RTD, and RTD during incubation period at 60°C for 2 days. The pre-RTD contained tea extract, sugar, and ascorbic acid. Addition of sodium bicarbonate was done in pre-RTD to obtain RTD with pH of 6.1±0.2. The type of phos-phate used was sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) and phosphoric acid. The concentrations of SAPP were 650 and 1300 mg/L, while those of phosphoric acid were 125, 250, and 500 mg/L.The total phospho-rous added from the combination of SAPP and phosphoric acid was 221-521 mg/L. Meanwhile, green tea extracted without phosphate was used as a control. The results showed that phosphate addition to water prior to green tea extraction caused decrease in pH of tea extract from 5.83±0.18 to 2.8-3.8, decrease in browning intensity, and reduced tannin degradation during the incubation period. Sugar and ascorbic acid added to the tea extract resulted in pH in all samples <4.0 and maintained the lightness of the pre-RTD. Phosphate application was not able to retain the color of RTD after incubation period. This study showed that addition of phosphorous as a combination of SAPP and phosphoric acid to water at concentrations of 221-521 mg/L prior to green tea extraction had positive impact in reducing browning intensity of RTD green tea with pH of lower than 4.0.


Achyadi N, Sutrisno A, Fauziah A. 2018. Pengaruh bahan pengekstrak terhadap karakteristik eks-trak senyawa fungsional dari kulit buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus). Pas Food Technol J 4: 23-30. DOI: 10.23969/pftj.v6i1. 1505.

Ananingsih VK, Sharma A, Zhou W. 2013. Green tea catechins during food processing and sto-rage: A review on stability and detection. Food Res Int 50: 469-479. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres. 2011.03.004.

Baek N, Kim Y, Duncan SE, Leitch K, O'Keefe S. 2021. (−)-Epigallocatechin gallate stability in ready-to-drink (rtd) green tea infusions in TiO2 and oleic-acid-modified TiO2 polylactic acid film packaging stored under fluorescent light during refrigerated storage at 4°C. Foods 10: 1-12. DOI: 10.3390/foods100 40723.

Balittri J. 2013. Kandungan senyawa kimia pada daun teh (Camellia sinensis). War Penelit dan Pengemb Tanam Ind 19: 12-16.

Bark KM, Yeom JE, Yang JI, Yang IJ, Park CH, Park HR. 2011. Spectroscopic studies on the oxi-dation of catechin in aqueous solution. Bull Ko-rean Chem Soc 32: 3443-3447. DOI: 10.5012/ bkcs.2011.32.9.3443.

Bijlsma J, de Bruijn WJC, Hageman JA, Goos P, Velikov KP, Vincken JP. 2020. Revealing the main factors and two-way interactions contri-buting to food discolouration caused by iron-catechol complexation. Sci Rep 10: 1-11. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-65171-1.

[BPOM RI] Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan Republik Indonesia. 2019. Perka BPOM No. 11 Tahun 2019 tentang Batas Maksimum Penggunaan Bahan Tambahan Pangan. BPOM RI, Jakarta.

Briawan D, Hardinsyah, Marhamah, Zulaikhah, Aries M. 2011. Konsumsi minuman dan preferensinya pada remaja di Jakarta dan Bandung. Gizi Indon 34: 43-51. DOI: 10.36457/gizindo.v34i1. 100.

Boyd CE, Tucker CS, Somridhivej B. 2016. Alkalinity and hardness: Critical but elusive concepts in aquaculture. J World Aquac Soc 47: 6-41. DOI: 10.1111/jwas.12241.

Chan EWC, Soh EY, Tie PP, Law YP. 2011. Anti-oxidant and antibacterial properties of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis. Pharmacognosy Res 3: 266-272. DOI: 10.4103/ 0974-8490.89748.

Chen Z, Zhu Q, Tsang D, Huang Y. 2001. Degra-dation of green tea catechins in tea drinks. J Agric Food Chem 49: 477-482. DOI: 10.1021/ jf000877h.

Chen L, Wang W, Zhang J, Wang W, Ni D, Jiang H. 2020. Dehydroascorbic acid affects the stability of catechins by forming conjunctions. Molecules 25: 1-12. DOI: 10.3390/molecules25184076.

Chaturvedula VSP, Prakash I. 2011. The aroma, taste, color and bioactive constituents of tea. J Med Plants Res 5: 2110-2124.

Choung M, Lee M. 2011. Optimal extraction condi-tions for simultaneous determination of ca-techins and caffeine in green tea leaves. Food Sci Biotechnol 20: 327-333. DOI: 10.1007/s100 68-011-0046-1.

Corral FM, Oliveira PG, Pereira AG, Lopes CL, Lopez CJ, Prieto MA, Gandara JS. 2020. Tech-nological application of tannin-based extracts. Molecules 25: 1-27. DOI: 10.3390/molecules 25030614.

Dai Q, He Y, Ho C, Wang J, Wang S, Yang Y, Gao L, Xia T. 2017. Effect of interaction of epigallo-catechin gallate and flavonols on color alte-ration of simulative green tea infusion after thermal treatment. J Food Sci Technol 54: 2919-2928. DOI: 10.1007/s13197-017-2730-5.

Dolińska B, Ostróżka-Cieślik A, Caban A, Rimantas K, Leszczyńska L, Ryszka F. 2012. Influence of trace elements on stabilization of aqueous solutions of ascorbic acid. Biol Trace Elem Res 150: 509-512. DOI: 10.1007/s12011-012-9524-4.

Du J, Cullen JJ, Buettner GR. 2012. Ascorbic acid: Chemistry, biology and the treatment of cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta-Rev Cancer 1826: 443-457. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbcan.2012.06.003.

Ellinger R. 2018. Phosphates as Food Ingredients. 15. 85-87. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

[FAO] Food Agricultural Organization. 2019. GSFA Online : Sodium Polyphosphate (452i).: http://w ww.fao.org/gsfaonline/additives/details.html?id=37 [13 September 2019].

Fan FY, Shi M, Nie Y, Zhao Y, Ye JH, Liang YR. 2015. Differential behaviors of tea catechins under thermal processing: formation of non-enzymatic oligomers. Food Chem 106: 347-354. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.09.056.

Forester S, Lambert J. 2011. The role of antioxidant versus pro-oxidant effects of green tea poly-phenols in cancer prevention. Mol Nutr Food Res 55: 844-854. DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.2010006 41.

Gadkari PV, Balaraman M. 2015. Catechins: sources, extraction and encapsulation - a review. Food Bioprod Process 93: 122-138. DOI: 10.1016/j.fbp.2013.12.004.

Hariyadi P. 2013. Hot-fill processing of beverages. Foodreview Int 1: 46-49.
Hasan A. 2017. Pengaruh asam askorbat dan sodium acid pyrophosphate (sapp) dalam men-cegah kerusakan antioksidan ubijalar ungu va-rietas antin 3. J Agritech Sci 1: 38-50.

Huang W, Lin Y, Ho R, Liu H, Lin Y. 2013. Effects of water solutions on extracting green tea leaves. Sci World J 2013: 1-6. DOI: 10.1155/2013/ 368350.

Hunaefi D, Yuliana ND, Rynaldo M, Dede R. 2018. Emotional sensory mapping of PET-packaging tea product. Int Conf Food Agric (2018): 288-305.

Iwasa K. 1975. Methods of chemical analysis. Japan Agric Res Q 9: 161-164.

Jiang L, Tu Y, Li X, Li H. 2018. Application of re-verse osmosis in purifying drinking water. E3S Web of Conferences 38: 1-6. DOI: 10.1051/e3s conf/20183801037.

Karseno, Erminawati, Yanto T, Setyowati R, Har-yanti P. 2017. Effect of pH and temperature on browning intensity of coconut sugar and its antioxidant activity. Food Res 2: 1-7. DOI: 10.26656/fr.2017.2(1).175.

[Kemendag RI] Kementerian perdagangan Republik Indonesia. 2015. What’s inside indonesian tea. Export News Indonesia 2: 1-12.

Kortei NK, Odamtten GT, Obodai M, Appiah V, Akonor PT. 2015. Determination of color parameters of gamma irradiated fresh and dried mushrooms during storage. Croat J Food Technol Biotechnol Nutr 10: 66-71.

Kim Y, Welt B, Talcott S. 2011. The impact of pack-aging materials on the antioxidant phytoche-mical stability of aqueous infusions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and Yaupon Holly (Ilex vomitoria) during cold storage. J Agric Food Chem 59: 4676-4683. DOI: 10.1021/jf104799y.

Li N, Taylor L, Ferruzzi M, Mauer L. 2012. Kinetic study of catechin stability: Effects of pH, con-centration, and temperature. J Agric Food Chem 60: 12531-12539. DOI: 10.1021/jf3041 16s.

Lin ZH, Qi YP, Chen RB, Zhang FZ, Chen LS. 2012. Effects of phosphorus supply on the quality of green tea. Food Chem 130: 908-914. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.08.008.

Liu P, Lu X, Li N, Zheng Z, Qiao X. 2019. Charac-terization, variables, and antioxidant activity of the maillard reaction in a fructose–histidine model system. Molecules 24: 1-15. DOI: 10.3390/molecules24010056.

Lončarić A, Pablo Lamas J, Guerra E, Kopjar M, Lores M. 2017. Thermal stability of catechin and epicatechin upon disaccharides addition. Int J Food Sci Technol 53: 1195-1202. DOI: 10.1111/ijfs.13696.

McHugh ML. 2011. Multiple comparison analysis testing in anova. Biochemia Medica 21: 203-209. DOI: 10.11613/bm.2011.029.

Nagai H, Sato K. 2001. Asahi Soft Drinks Co. Ltd. 2001 Maret 13. Method for preventing powdered tea-containing food from browning and powder green tea beverage to prevent browning held in transparent container. Paten JP2001061412A.

Orona V, Medina G. 2019. Changes in phenolics and antioxidant capacity during short storage of ready-to-drink green tea (Camellia sinensis) beverage at commercial conditions. Post Harvest Technol 78: 141-145. DOI: 10.1590/ 1678-4499.2018027.

Muzolf-Panek M, Gliszczyńska-Świgło A, Szymusiak H, Tyrakowska B. 2012. The influence of stereochemistry on the antioxidant properties of catechin epimers. Eur Food Res Technol 235: 1001-1009. DOI: 10.1007/s00217-012-1826-4.

Pastoriza S, Mesías M, Cabrera C, Henares JAR. 2017. Healthy properties of green and white teas: An update. Food Funct 8: 2650-2662. DOI: 10.1039/c7fo00611j.

Spiro M, Price WE. 1987. Kinetics and equilibria of tea infusion part 6: The effects of salts and of pH on the concentrations and partition con-stants of theaflavins and caffeine in Kapchorua Pekoe fannings. Food Chem 24: 51-61. DOI: 10.1016/0308-8146(87)90083-5.

Tsao R, Li H. 2012. Antioxidant properties in vitro and in vivo: realistic assessments of efficacy of plant extracts. CAB Rev 7: 1-9. DOI: 10.1079/ PAVSNNR20127009.

Vuong Q, Golding J, Stathopoulos C, Roach P. 2013. Effects of aqueous brewing solution pH on the extraction of the major green tea cons-tituents. Food Res Int 53: 713-719. DOI: 10. 1016/j.foodres.2012.09.017.

Wang L, Kim D, Park J, Lee C. 2003. Various anti-browning agents and green tea extract during processing and storage. J Food Process Preserv 27: 213-225. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4549.2003.tb00513.x.

Xu H, Zhang L, Chenxin E. 2010. The Coca Cola Company. 2010 Mei 6. Inhibition of the formation of tea opacification or precipitation in tea drinks during storage. Paten USA 20100035098 A1 .

Xu Y, Zou C, Gao Y, Chen J, Wang F, Chen G, Yin J. 2016. Effect of the type of brewing water on the chemical composition, sensory quality and antioxidant capacity of Chinese teas. Food Chem 236: 142-151. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem. 2016.11.110.

Yeni G, Syamsu K, Mardliyati E, Muchtar H. 2017. Determination of process technology on making of pure gambier and standardized catechin from raw gambier. J Litbang Ind 7: 1-10.

Zeng L, Maa M, Li C, Luo L. 2016. Stability of tea polyphenols solution with different pH at different temperatures. Int J Food Prop 20: 1-18. DOI: 10.1080/10942912. 2014.983605.

Zhang H, Jiang Y, Lv Y, Pan J, Duan Y, Huang Y, Zhu Y, Zhang S, Geng K. 2017. Effect of water quality on the main components in Fuding white tea infusions. J Food Sci Technol 54: 1206-1211. DOI: 10.1007/s13197-017-2571-2.

Zimmermann B, Gleichenhagen M. 2011. The effect of ascorbic acid, citric acid and low pH on the extraction of green tea: How to get most out of it. Food Chem 124: 1543-1548. DOI: 10.1016/j. foodchem.2010.08.009.


Rima Hidayati
Nuri Andarwulan
andarwulan@apps.ipb.ac.id (Primary Contact)
Dian Herawati
HidayatiR., Andarwulan N., & HerawatiD. (2021). APLIKASI FOSFAT PADA PROSES EKSTRAKSI TEH HIJAU UNTUK MINUMAN TEH HIJAU SIAP MINUM. Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan, 32(1), 36-51. https://doi.org/10.6066/jtip.2021.32.1.36
Copyright and license info is not available

Article Details