PROFIL SENYAWA POLAR TIGA JENIS MINYAK GORENG SELAMA PENGGORENGAN TAHU DAN TEMPE

  • Titri Siratantri Mastuti Program Studi Teknologi Pangan, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Tangerang
  • Dedi Fardiaz Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor
  • Didah Nur Faridah Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor
Keywords: FFA, tempeh, tofu, TPM, type of frying oil

Abstract

The quality of repeatedly used frying oil can be seen from its total polar material (TPM) content. This study aims to determine the influence of different types of oil with different degrees of unsaturation (coco-nut, palm, soybean oil) and foodstuffs with different characteristics (tofu and tempe) to the formation of the polar compounds in repeatedly used frying oil, based on the content of TPM, FFA, BI, FTIR and UV-Vis spectra. Chemical characterization of materials used was done in the first research stage. The second stage was the analysis of the polar compounds of the oil which was used for 3 hours/day for a dried of 15 hours. The results showed that the type of oil and food type affected the levels of TPM with increasing time of frying. The highest level of TPM 19.41±0.13% obtained from combination soybean frying oil-tempeh (15 hours). The FTIR spectrum of the polar fraction from the used frying oil showed a large absorption in area 3600-3200 cm-1 wavelength in which hydroxyl groups indicate the polarity of the frying oil. The rate of in-crease of FFA in all combinations of oil type-tempeh was faster than combination oil type-tofu. Coconut oil-tofu has a slower rate for FFA and browning index. The carbonyl compound in frying oil was showed from peak spectrum absorption at 420 nm.

Author Biographies

Titri Siratantri Mastuti, Program Studi Teknologi Pangan, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Tangerang
Program Studi Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Sains dan Teknologi
Dedi Fardiaz, Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor

1)Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan.

2)Southeast Asian Food and Agricultural Science and Technology (SEAFAST) Center

Didah Nur Faridah, Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor

1)Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan.

2)Southeast Asian Food and Agricultural Science and Technology (SEAFAST) Center

References

Andarti IY, Wardani AK. 2015. Pengaruh lama fermentasi terhadap karakteristik kimia, mikrobiologi, dan organoleptik miso kedelai hitam (Glycine max (L). JPA. 3 (3) : 889-898.

Aladedunye F, Thiyam-Hollander U, Marangoni AG. 2017. Frying oil chemistry. Di dalam : Akoh CC, editor. Food Lipids : Chemistry, Nutrition, and Biotechnology. Edisi ke-4. Boca Raton FL (US): CRC Press.

[AOAC] Association of Official Analytical Chemistry. 2012. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemistry. Maryland (US): AOAC.

Bavia ACF, Silva CE, Ferreira MP, Leite RS, Mandarino JMG, Carrao-Panizzi MC. 2012. Chemical composition of tempeh from soybean cultivars specially developed for human consumption. Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment. 32(3): 613-620. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612012005000085.

Bolade MK, Usman MA, Da-Clarke U. 2017. Proximate composition, colour characteristics, index of oiliness and estimated glycemic index of deep-fried bitter yam (Dioscorea dumentorum) chips. IJSciences. 6 (11). DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1468.

Bordin K, Kunitake MT, Aracava KK, Trindade CS. 2013. Changes in food caused by deep fat frying [ulasan]. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 63(1):5-13.

[BPOM] Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan. 2016. Peraturan Kepala Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan Republik Indonesia Nomor 21 Tahun 2016. Kategori Pangan. Jakarta : Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan.

[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik. 2018. Rata-Rata Konsumsi per Kapita Seminggu Beberapa Macam Bahan Makanan Penting, 2007-2017 [Internet]. [diunduh 11 Mei 2018]. Tersedia : http://www.bps.go.id.

[BSN] Badan Standardisasi Nasional. 1998. SNI Cara Uji Minyak dan Lemak. Jakarta (ID): BSN

Cempaka L, Eliza N, Ardiansyah, Handoko DD, Astuti RM. 2018. Proximate composition, total phenolic content, and sensory analysis of rice bran tempeh. Makara Journal of Science. 22(2) : 89-94. DOI: 10.7454/mss.v22i2.9616

Chen W, Chiu C, Cheng W, Hsu C, Kuo M. 2013. Total polar compounds and acid values of repeatedly used frying oils measured by standard and rapid methods. JFDA. 21(1): 58-65.

Choe E, Min DB. 2007. Chemistry of deep fat frying oils : concise reviews in food science [ulasan]. J Food Sci. 72(5):R77-86. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00352.x.

Damanik RNS, Pratiwi DYW, Widyastuti N, Rustanti N, Anjani G, Afifah DN. 2017. Nutritional composition changes during tempeh gembus processing. Proceeding of 3rd International Conference on Tropical and Coastal Region Eco Development, p. 116. Indonesia : IOP Publishing. DOI :10.1088/1755-1315/116/1/012026.

Damasio JMA, Requiao LA, Santana DA, Silva MV, Souza NE, Coro FAG, Simionato JI. 2013. Lipid stability of soybeans in grains and soybeans processed as tofu. J Agric Sci. 5 (11). DOI:10.5539/jas.v5n11p67.

[DGF] Deutsche Gesellschaft für Fettwissenschaft. 2013. Recommendation of symposium. The 7th International Symposium on Deep-Fat Frying: 20 - 22 February 2013, San Fransisco, CA, USA. DGF [Internet]. [12 Mei 2017]. Tersedia : http//www.dgfett.de/material/recomm.php.

Dobarganes C, Marquez-Ruiz G. 2013. Possible adverse effects of frying with vegetable oils [ulasan]. Br. J. Nutr. 113 : 49-57. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114514002347.

Endo Y, Mo Li C, Tagiri-Endo M, Fujimoto K. 2001. A Modified method for the estimation of total carbonyl compounds in heated and frying oils using 2-propanol as a solvent. JAOCS. 78 : 10.

Fahri Y, Onur O, Ozge O. 2015. Changes in quality characteristics of different deep frying fats during frying and regeneration potentials of different adsorbents in wasted frying oils. JFNR. 3 (3) : 176-181. DOI:10.12691/jfnr-3-3-8

Fan HY, Sharifudin MS, Hasmadi M, Chew HM. 2013. Frying stability of rice bran oil and palm oil. IFRJ. 20(1):403-407.

Goh EM, Timms RE. 1985. Determination of mono and diglycerides in palm oil, olein and stearin. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 62:130. DOI: 10.1007/BF03028741

Halim Y, Natania, Halim JM, Soedirga LC, Yakhin LA. 2016. Physical and chemical characteristics of frying oil in Indonesia in a repeated frying model. JOCPR. 8(3):583-589.

Hamed SF, El-Wafa GA, El-Ghorab A, Shibamoto T. 2011. Quality assessment of heated cooking oil, agab, using a simple newly-developed spectrophotometric method. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 88:1851-1855. DOI: 10.1007/s11746-011-1859-z.

Handoyo T, Morita N. 2006. Structural and functional properties of fermented soybean (tempeh) by using Rhizopus oligosporus. INT J FOOD PROP. 9 : 347–355. DOI: 10.1080/10942910500224746

Hashem HA, Shahat M, El-Behairy SA, Sabry A. 2017. Use of palm olein for improving the quality properties and oxidative stability of some vegetable oils during frying process. Middle East J. Appl. Sci. 7(1):68-79.

[IUPAC] International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 1992. Standard Methods for the Analysis of Oils, Fats and Derivatives. Ed ke-7. Determination of Polar Compounds in Frying Fats. Oxford (GB): Pergamon Press.

Karayaka S, Simsek S. 2011. Changes in total polar compounds, peroxide value, total phenols and antioxidant activity of various oils used in deep fat frying. JAOCS. 88:1361-1366.

Kiran CR. 2015. Thermal Degradation Studies on Edible Oils During Deep Fat Frying Process [Tesis]. Kerala : Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR), Agroprocessing and Natural Products Division of National Institute, India.

Li J, Li X, Cai W, Liu Y. 2016. Comparison of different polar compounds induced cytotoxicity in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Lipids in Health and Disease. 15:30. doi : 10.1186/s12944-016-0201-z.

Li X, Li J, Wang JLY, Cao P, Liu Y. 2017. Effects of frying oils’ fatty acids profile on the formation of polar lipids components and their retention in French fries over deep-frying process. Fd Chem. 15;237:98-105. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.05.100

Mariana RR, Kirana TM, Hidayati L. 2014. Analysis on the quality change of tempeh, catfish and fried chicken as the effect of the repetitive used cooking oil. JFR. 3 (1). DOI:10.5539/jfr.v3n1p96

O’Brien RD. 2009. Fats and Oils : Formulating and Processing for Applications. Ed ke-3. New York (US): CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group.

Shaker MA. 2015. Comparison between traditional deep-fat frying and air-frying for production of healthy fried potato strips. IFRJ. 22(4): 1557-1563.

Sudarmadji S, Markakis P. 1978. Lipid and other changes occurring during the fermentation and frying of tempeh. Fd Chem. (3) : 165-170.

Sundari D, Almasyhuri, Lamid A. 2015. Pengaruh proses pemasakan terhadap komposisi zat gizi bahan pangan sumber protein. Media Litbangkes. 25 (4) : 235 – 242. DOI : 10.22435/mpk.v25i4.4590.235-242.

Tabee E, Jagerstad M, Dutta P. 2009. Frying quality characterictics of french fries prepared in refined olive oil and palm olein. JAOCS. 86 (9): 885-893.

Tena NR, Aparicio-Ruiz R, Garcia-Gonzalez DL. 2014. Use of polar and nonpolar fractions as additional information sources for studying thermoxidized virgin olive oils by FTIR. GRASAS ACEITES 65(3). DOI: 10.3989/gya.121913.

Totani N, Tateishi S, Mori T, Hammond EG. 2012. Oxidation of frying oils during intermittent usage. J. Oleo Sci. 61 (11) : 601 – 607.

Utari DM. 2010. Kandungan asam lemak, zinc, dan copper pada tempe, bagaimana potensinya untuk mencegah penyakit degeneratif. Gizi Indon. 33 (2) : 108-115.

Vlachos N, Skopelitis Y, Psaroudaki M, Konstantinidou V, Chatzilazarou A, Tegou E. 2006. Applications of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy to edible oils. Anal Chim Acta. 573-574:459-465. DOI : 10.1016/j.aca.2006.05.034.

Zahir E, Saeed R, Hameed MA, Yousuf A. 2017. Study of physicochemical properties of edible oil and evaluation of frying oil quality by Fourier Transform-Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy. J Arab Chem. 10 : S3870-S3876. DOI : 10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.05.025.

Published
2019-06-12
How to Cite
Mastuti, T. S., Fardiaz, D., & Faridah, D. N. (2019). PROFIL SENYAWA POLAR TIGA JENIS MINYAK GORENG SELAMA PENGGORENGAN TAHU DAN TEMPE. Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan, 30(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.6066/jtip.2019.30.1.1