Vulnerability of multi-designated landscape and its connectivity toward conservation: A case study in Kampar Kerumutan, Riau, Indonesia

Ogy Dwi Aulia, Aryo Adhi Condro, Mufti Fathul Barri, Juliarta Bramansa Ottay, Tomi Ariyanto


Indonesia is declared by the United Nations as a country that meets its conservation targets. However, Indonesia has not maximized the potential conservation of its territory, and the ecosystem is still threatened by anthropogenic activity, particularly due to small and large scales cultivation. Besides, the Government of Indonesia (GoI) built taskforces at the national level to avoid greenhouse gas emissions through FOLU Net Sink 2030 that could tackle climate and biodiversity crises. Therefore, identifying OECMs and creating a sustainable management framework by elaborating on the carbon pool and its dynamics across the Indonesian landscape is crucial to meet the targets of the global conservation agenda. Kampar Kerumutan Landscape (KKL) is one of the critical landscapes in Indonesia with high potential conservation for biodiversity and high intervention from various concessions. Our result showed that most KKLs were categorized as potential restoration areas. Industrial forest plantations (IFP) had the highest threat for conservation. To connect the potential highly conserved areas within KKL for species mobility, restoration projects (particularly in IFP, Protected Areas, and Non-managed areas) should be conducted to achieve human and nature balance in the KKL.


Alves-Pinto, H., Geldmann, J., Jonas, H., Maioli, V., Balmford, A., Ewa Latawiec, A., Crouzeilles, R., & Strassburg, B. (2021). Opportunities and challenges of other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs) for biodiversity conservation. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation, 19(2), 115–120.
Austin, K. G., Schwantes, A., Gu, Y., & Kasibhatla, P. S. (2019). What causes deforestation in Indonesia? Environmental Research Letters, 14(2), 024007.
Barlow, J., Lennox, G. D., Ferreira, J., Berenguer, E., Lees, A. C., Nally, R. mac, Thomson, J. R., Ferraz, S. F. de B., Louzada, J., Oliveira, V. H. F., Parry, L., Ribeiro de Castro Solar, R., Vieira, I. C. G., Aragão, L. E. O. C., Begotti, R. A., Braga, R. F., Cardoso, T. M., de Oliveira, R. C., Souza Jr, C. M., … Gardner, T. A. (2016). Anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests can double biodiversity loss from deforestation. Nature, 535(7610), 144–147.
Brancalion, P. H. S., Niamir, A., Broadbent, E., Crouzeilles, R., Barros, F. S. M., Almeyda Zambrano, A. M., Baccini, A., Aronson, J., Goetz, S., Reid, J. L., Strassburg, B. B. N., Wilson, S., & Chazdon, R. L. (2019). Global restoration opportunities in tropical rainforest landscapes. Science Advances, 5(7).
Bugalho, M. N., Dias, F. S., Briñas, B., & Cerdeira, J. O. (2016). Using the high conservation value forest concept and Pareto optimization to identify areas maximizing biodiversity and ecosystem services in cork oak landscapes. Agroforestry Systems, 90(1), 35–44.
Chandra, A., & Idrisova, A. (2011). Convention on Biological Diversity: a review of national challenges and opportunities for implementation. Biodiversity and Conservation, 20(14), 3295–3316.
Condro, A. A., Prasetyo, L. B., Rushayati, S. B., Santikayasa, I. P., & Iskandar, E. (2022). Protected areas slow down tropical rainforest disturbance in the Leuser Ecosystem, Indonesia. Journal of Land Use Science, 17(1), 454–470.
de Almeida, A. S., Vieira, I. C. G., & Ferraz, S. F. B. (2020). Long-term assessment of oil palm expansion and landscape change in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. Land Use Policy, 90, 104321.
Deere, N. J., Guillera‐Arroita, G., Baking, E. L., Bernard, H., Pfeifer, M., Reynolds, G., Wearn, O. R., Davies, Z. G., & Struebig, M. J. (2018). High Carbon Stock forests provide co‐benefits for tropical biodiversity. Journal of Applied Ecology, 55(2), 997–1008.
Díaz, S., Zafra-Calvo, N., Purvis, A., Verburg, P. H., Obura, D., Leadley, P., Chaplin-Kramer, R., de Meester, L., Dulloo, E., Martín-López, B., Shaw, M. R., Visconti, P., Broadgate, W., Bruford, M. W., Burgess, N. D., Cavender-Bares, J., DeClerck, F., Fernández-Palacios, J. M., Garibaldi, L. A., … Zanne, A. E. (2020). Set ambitious goals for biodiversity and sustainability. Science, 370(6515), 411–413.
Dickson, B. G., Albano, C. M., Anantharaman, R., Beier, P., Fargione, J., Graves, T. A., Gray, M. E., Hall, K. R., Lawler, J. J., Leonard, P. B., Littlefield, C. E., McClure, M. L., Novembre, J., Schloss, C. A., Schumaker, N. H., Shah, V. B., & Theobald, D. M. (2019). Circuit-theory applications to connectivity science and conservation. Conservation Biology, 33(2), 239–249.
Dinerstein, E., Joshi, A. R., Vynne, C., Lee, A. T. L., Pharand-Deschênes, F., França, M., Fernando, S., Birch, T., Burkart, K., Asner, G. P., & Olson, D. (2020). A “Global Safety Net” to reverse biodiversity loss and stabilize Earth’s climate. Science Advances, 6(36).
Dinerstein, E., Olson, D., Joshi, A., Vynne, C., Burgess, N. D., Wikramanayake, E., Hahn, N., Palminteri, S., Hedao, P., Noss, R., Hansen, M., Locke, H., Ellis, E. C., Jones, B., Barber, C. V., Hayes, R., Kormos, C., Martin, V., Crist, E., … Saleem, M. (2017). An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm. BioScience, 67(6), 534–545.
Donald, P. F., Buchanan, G. M., Balmford, A., Bingham, H., Couturier, A. R., la Rosa, G. E., Gacheru, P., Herzog, S. K., Jathar, G., Kingston, N., Marnewick, D., Maurer, G., Reaney, L., Shmygaleva, T., Sklyarenko, S., Stevens, C. M. D., & Butchart, S. H. M. (2019). The prevalence, characteristics and effectiveness of Aichi Target 11′s “other effective area‐based conservation measures” (OECMs) in Key Biodiversity Areas. Conservation Letters, 12(5).
Dunning, K. (2022). Biodiversity conservation policy in megadiverse countries: Comparing policy systems for 2020 targets to inform management in the coming decades. Journal of Environmental Management, 302, 113815.
Foley, J. A., Ramankutty, N., Brauman, K. A., Cassidy, E. S., Gerber, J. S., Johnston, M., Mueller, N. D., O’Connell, C., Ray, D. K., West, P. C., Balzer, C., Bennett, E. M., Carpenter, S. R., Hill, J., Monfreda, C., Polasky, S., Rockström, J., Sheehan, J., Siebert, S., … Zaks, D. P. M. (2011). Solutions for a cultivated planet. Nature, 478(7369), 337–342.
Forest Peoples Program. (2011). Indonesia: indigenous people and the Kampar Peninsula.
Gasparini, K. A. C., Silva Junior, C. H. L., Shimabukuro, Y. E., Arai, E., Aragão, L. E. O. C. e, Silva, C. A., & Marshall, P. L. (2019). Determining a Threshold to Delimit the Amazonian Forests from the Tree Canopy Cover 2000 GFC Data. Sensors, 19(22), 5020.
Gaveau, D. L. A., Epting, J., Lyne, O., Linkie, M., Kumara, I., Kanninen, M., & Leader-Williams, N. (2009). Evaluating whether protected areas reduce tropical deforestation in Sumatra. Journal of Biogeography, 36(11), 2165–2175.
Gaveau, D. L. A., Locatelli, B., Salim, M. A., Husnayaen, Manurung, T., Descals, A., Angelsen, A., Meijaard, E., & Sheil, D. (2022). Slowing deforestation in Indonesia follows declining oil palm expansion and lower oil prices. PLOS ONE, 17(3), e0266178.
Gaveau, D. L. A., Locatelli, B., Salim, M. A., Yaen, H., Pacheco, P., & Sheil, D. (2019). Rise and fall of forest loss and industrial plantations in Borneo (2000–2017). Conservation Letters, 12(3).
Goldammer, J. G., & Seibert, B. (1990). The Impact of Droughts and Forest Fires on Tropical Lowland Rain Forest of East Kalimantan. Fire in the Tropical Biota, 11–31.
Gregory, A., Spence, E., Beier, P., & Garding, E. (2021). Toward Best Management Practices for Ecological Corridors. Land, 10(2), 140.
Hansen, M. C., Potapov, P. v., Moore, R., Hancher, M., Turubanova, S. A., Tyukavina, A., Thau, D., Stehman, S. v., Goetz, S. J., Loveland, T. R., Kommareddy, A., Egorov, A., Chini, L., Justice, C. O., & Townshend, J. R. G. (2013). High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change. Science.
Hodgson, J. A., Wallis, D. W., Krishna, R., & Cornell, S. J. (2016). How to manipulate landscapes to improve the potential for range expansion. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 7(12), 1558–1566.
Hughes, A. C. (2017). Understanding the drivers of Southeast Asian biodiversity loss. Ecosphere, 8(1).
Keeley, A. T. H., Beier, P., & Jenness, J. S. (2021). Connectivity metrics for conservation planning and monitoring. Biological Conservation, 255, 109008.
Laurance, W. F., Goosem, M., & Laurance, S. G. W. (2009). Impacts of roads and linear clearings on tropical forests. In Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
Margono, B. A., Turubanova, S., Zhuravleva, I., Potapov, P., Tyukavina, A., Baccini, A., Goetz, S., & Hansen, M. C. (2012). Mapping and monitoring deforestation and forest degradation in Sumatra (Indonesia) using Landsat time series data sets from 1990 to 2010. Environmental Research Letters, 7(3), 2000–2010.
MoEF. (2022). National Contribution in Climate Change.
Noon, M. L., Goldstein, A., Ledezma, J. C., Roehrdanz, P. R., Cook-Patton, S. C., Spawn-Lee, S. A., Wright, T. M., Gonzalez-Roglich, M., Hole, D. G., Rockström, J., & Turner, W. R. (2021). Mapping the irrecoverable carbon in Earth’s ecosystems. Nature Sustainability, 5(January).
Plumptre, A. J., Baisero, D., Belote, R. T., Vázquez-Domínguez, E., Faurby, S., Jȩdrzejewski, W., Kiara, H., Kühl, H., Benítez-López, A., Luna-Aranguré, C., Voigt, M., Wich, S., Wint, W., Gallego-Zamorano, J., & Boyd, C. (2021). Where Might We Find Ecologically Intact Communities? Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, 4.
Poggio, L., de Sousa, L. M., Batjes, N. H., Heuvelink, G. B. M., Kempen, B., Ribeiro, E., & Rossiter, D. (2021). SoilGrids 2.0: producing soil information for the globe with quantified spatial uncertainty. SOIL, 7(1), 217–240.
Rahman, D.A., Santosa, Y., Purnamasari, I., Condro, A. A. (2022). Drivers of Three Most Charismatic Mammalian Species Distribution Across a Multiple-use Tropical Forest Landscape of Sumatera Indonesia. MDPI Animals, 2(19),272.
Reed, J., van Vianen, J., Barlow, J., & Sunderland, T. (2017). Have integrated landscape approaches reconciled societal and environmental issues in the tropics? Land Use Policy, 63, 481–492.
RER. (2020). Laporan Kemajuan RER 2020. Report.
Riggs, R. A., Achdiawan, R., Adiwinata, A., Boedhihartono, A. K., Kastanya, A., Langston, J. D., Priyadi, H., Ruiz-Pérez, M., Sayer, J., & Tjiu, A. (2021). Governing the landscape: potential and challenges of integrated approaches to landscape sustainability in Indonesia. Landscape Ecology, 36(8), 2409–2426.
Rintelen, K. V., Arida, E., Hauser, C. (2017). A Review of Biodiversity-Related Issue and Challenges in Megadiverse Indonesia and Other Southeast Asian Countries. Research Ideas and Outcomes.
Saranya, K. R. L., Lakshmi, T. V., & Reddy, C. S. (2022). Analysing the trends in annual forest loss hotspots in the regional landscape of Eastern Ghats, India. Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment, 26, 100731.
Sari, D. A., Margules, C., Lim, H. S., Widyatmaka, F., Sayer, J., Dale, A., & Macgregor, C. (2021). Evaluating policy coherence: A case study of peatland forests on the Kampar Peninsula landscape, Indonesia. Land Use Policy, 105, 105396.
Saura, S., & Rubio, L. (2010). A common currency for the different ways in which patches and links can contribute to habitat availability and connectivity in the landscape. Ecography, 33(3), 523–537.
Scherr, S., Shames, S., & Friedman, R. (2013). Defining Integrated Landscape Management for Policy Makers. Ecoagriculture Policy Focus No. 10.
Scriven, S. A., Hodgson, J. A., McClean, C. J., & Hill, J. K. (2015). Protected areas in Borneo may fail to conserve tropical forest biodiversity under climate change. Biological Conservation, 184, 414–423.
Spawn, S. A., Sullivan, C. C., Lark, T. J., & Gibbs, H. K. (2020). Harmonized global maps of above and belowground biomass carbon density in the year 2010. Scientific Data, 7(1), 1–22.
Tropenbos. (2019). The strategic role of stakeholder mapping and engagement on KEE development. The strategic role of stakeholder mapping and engagement on KEE development
UNDP. (2021). Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 Country Dossier: Indonesia.
Vandergast, A. G., Perry, W. M., Lugo, R. v., & Hathaway, S. A. (2011). Genetic landscapes GIS Toolbox: Tools to map patterns of genetic divergence and diversity. Molecular Ecology Resources, 11(1), 158–161.
Watson, J. E. M., Iwamura, T., & Butt, N. (2013). Mapping vulnerability and conservation adaptation strategies under climate change. Nature Climate Change, 3(11), 989–994.
WCPA. (2019). Recognizing and Reporting Other Effective Area-Based Conservation Measures. Report
Wendland, K. J., Baumann, M., Lewis, D. J., Sieber, A., & Radeloff, V. C. (2015). Protected Area Effectiveness in European Russia: A Postmatching Panel Data Analysis. Land Economics, 91(1), 149–168.
Xu, H., Cao, Y., Yu, D., Cao, M., He, Y., Gill, M., & Pereira, H. M. (2021). Ensuring effective implementation of the post-2020 global biodiversity targets. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 5(4), 411–418.


Ogy Dwi Aulia (Primary Contact)
Aryo Adhi Condro
Mufti Fathul Barri
Juliarta Bramansa Ottay
Tomi Ariyanto
Dwi AuliaO., CondroA. A., BarriM. F., OttayJ. B. and AriyantoT. (2023) “Vulnerability of multi-designated landscape and its connectivity toward conservation: A case study in Kampar Kerumutan, Riau, Indonesia”, Jurnal Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan (Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Management). Bogor, ID, 13(4), pp. 561-573. doi: 10.29244/jpsl.13.4.561-573.

Article Details