Assessment of heavy metals pollution in sediment of Citarum River, Indonesia
Heavy metals have been reported to accumulate in sediment of Citarum River. The measurement of total heavy metals may not be able to provide information about the exact dimension of pollution, thus the determination of different fractions assumed great importance. This study was performed to determine chemical fractions of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd) in sediment collected at 8 locations from Citarum River. The sequential extraction procedure was used to extract heavy metals in water-soluble, acid-soluble, MnO occluded, organically bound, FeO occluded and residual fraction in sediment. Bioavailability and potential ecological risk level of heavy metals were evaluated based on bioavailability factor (BF) and risk assessment code (RAC) method. The results showed that Cu, Ni, Cr were mostly in residual form, indicate those from geological sources. Cu had low bioavailability and no risk in all sediment samples of Citarum River. Ni and Cr each was found to have risk at 2 locations. Pb and Cd were found dominantly in non-residual fraction, suggest those from anthropogenic sources. BF and RAC analysis of Pb and Cd suggest that there is a potential risk to the aquatic environment.
Alam O, Wang S, Lu W. 2018. Heavy metals dispersion during thermal treatment of plastic bags and its recovery. J. Environ. Manage. 212:367–374.doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.02.034.
Alloway BJ. 2012. Heavy Metals in Soils : Trace Metals and Metalloids in Soils and their Bioavailability. Third Edit. New York: Springer.
Astuti N, Rahmanto D. 2015. Analisis erosi dan sedimen di catchment area sungai Hauran menggunakan model AGNPS (Agricultural Non Point Source Pollution Model). J. Fis. FLUX. 12(1):31–42.
Australian Government Initiative. 2018. Default Guideline Value for toxicant in sediment, Australia. [Downloaded on 20th January 2020]. Available on : https://www.waterquality.gov.au/anzguidelines /guidelinevalues/default/sedimentquality –toxicants.
Bukit NT. 1995. Water quality conservation for the Citarum River in West Java. Wat. Sci. Tech. 31(9):1–10.doi:10.1016/0273-1223(95)00400-H.
Chakraborty P, Chakraborty S, Jayachandran S, Madan R. 2016. Effects of bottom water dissolved oxygen variability on copper and lead fractionation in the sediments across the oxygen minimum zone, western continental margin of India. Sci. Total Environ. 566–567:1052–1061.doi:10.1016/ j.scitotenv.2016.05.125.
Chakraborty S, Chakraborty P, Sarkar A, Nath BN. 2017. Kinetic and equilibrium based fractionation study of Pb in continental shelf sediment of India. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 123(1–2):188–196.doi:10.1016/ j.marpolbul.2017.08.063.
Chen X, Zhao Y, Zeng C, Li Y, Zhu L, Wu J, Chen J. 2019. Assessment contributions of physicochemical properties and bacterial community to mitigate the bioavailability of heavy metals during composting based on structural equation models. Bioresour. Technol. 289:1–9.doi:10.1016/j.biortech .2019.121657.
Das AK, Hossain A, Hasan Z. 2015. Heavy metals concentration in textile and garments industries wastewater of Bhaluka industrial area, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Curent World Environ. 10(1):61–66.
Duan L, Song J, Xu Y, Li X, Zhang Y. 2010. The distribution, enrichment and source of potential harmful elements in surface sediments of Bohai Bay, North China. J. Hazard. Mater. 183(1–3):155–164.doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.07.005.
Egli M, Sartori G, Mirabella A, Giaccai D, Favilli F, Scherrer D, Krebs R, Delbos E. 2010. The influence of weathering and organic matter on heavy metals lability in silicatic, Alpine soils. Sci. Total Environ. 408(4):931–946.doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.10.005.
Environment Canada. 1994. Interim Sediment Quality Assessment Values, Manuscript Report No. ECD. Ecosystem Conservation Directorate, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario
Iwasaki K, Tsuji M, Sakurai K. 1997. Fractionation of copper and manganese in agricultural soils near an abandoned copper mine. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 43(1):157--169.doi:10.1080/00380768.1997.10414724.
Jain CK. 2004. Metal fractionation study on bed sediments of River Yamuna, India. Water Res. 38(3):569–578.doi:10.1016/j.watres.2003.10.042.
Kennedy VH, Sanchez AL, Oughton DH, Rowland AP. 1997. Use of single and sequential chemical extractants to assess radionuclide and heavy metal availability from soils for root uptake. Analyst. 122:89–100.
Mary J, Karthik C, Ganesh R, Kumar SS, Prabakar D, Kadirvelu K, Pugazhendhi A. 2018. Biological approaches to tackle heavy metal pollution : A survey of literature. J. Environ. Manage. 217:56–70.doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.03.077.
Morillo J, Usero J, Gracia I. 2004. Heavy metal distribution in marine sediments from the southwest coast of Spain. Chemosphere. 55(3):431–442.doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.10.047.
Muhajir, Edward, Ahmad F. 2004. Akumulasi logam berat Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn dan Cr dalam sedimen di muara sungai Cisadane, Ciliwung dan Citarum, Teluk Jakarta. J. Ilm. Sorihi. 3(1):83–98.
Paundanan M, Riani E, Anwar S. 2015. Kontaminasi logam berat merkuri (Hg) dan timbal (Pb) pada air, sedimen dan ikan selar tetengkek (Megalaspis cordyla L) di Teluk Palu, Sulawesi Tengah. JPSL. 5(2):161–168.doi:10.19081/jpsl.5.2.161.
Phuong NM, Kang Y, Sakurai K, Iwasaki K, N KC, Noi N V, Son LT. 2010. Levels and chemical forms of heavy metals in soils from Red River Delta, Vietnam. Water Air Soil Pollut. 207:319–332.doi:10.1007/s11270-009-0139-0.
Septiono MA, Roosmini D, Rachmatiah I, Salami S, Ariesyady HD. 2016. Industrial activities and its effects to river water quality (case study Citarum , Bengawan Solo and Brantas), an evaluation for Java Island as an economic corridor in master plan of acceleration and expansion of Indonesia economic development (MP3EI). In : The 12th International Symposium on Southeast Asian Water Environment (SEAWE2016).
Singh KP, Mohan D, Singh VK, Malik A. 2005. Studies on distribution and fractionation of heavy metals in Gomti river sediments — a tributary of the Ganges , India. J. Hydrol. 312(1–4):14–27.doi:10.1016/j .jhydrol.2005.01.021.
Syahminan, Riani E, Anwar S, Rifardi. 2015. Telaahan logam berat Pb dan Cd pada sedimen di perairan barat laut Dumai-Riau. JPSL. 5(2):133–140.doi:10.19081/jpsl.5.2.133.
Wang Q, Liu R, Men C, Xu F, Guo L, Shen Z. 2017. Spatial-temporal distribution and risk assessment of mercury in different fractions in surface sediments from the Yangtze river estuary. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 124(1):1–8.doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.07.034.
Yuan C, Shi J, He B, Liu J, Liang L, Jiang G. 2004. Speciation of heavy metals in marine sediments from the East China Sea by ICP-MS with sequential extraction. Environ. Int. 30:769–783.doi:10.1016 /j.envint.2004.01.001.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).