Ekstraksi Polisakarida Ulvan dari Rumput Laut Ulva lactuca Berbantu Gelombang Ultrasonik pada Suhu Rendah Ultrasonic Wave Assisted Extraction of Ulvan Polysaccharide from Ulva Seaweed at Low Temperature
Ulvan is the major sulfated polysaccharide of Ulva seaweed which comprises important biological activity. Technically, ulvan is extracted at high temperatures and for a long-duration extraction step, which will require high energy. Therefore, an alternative extraction approach is required to generate ulvan with good quality that meets energy efficiency. One alternative method to reduce the extraction energy is ultrasonic waves. This study aims to determine the effect of ultrasonication on the different extraction protocols on the yield and ulvan characteristics. In the initial evaluation, a combination of solvents (aquades, HCl, and NaOH) was used with low-temperature extraction conditions (50, 60, and 70℃) for 45 and 90 minutes with the ultrasonication assisted. The highest yield of ulvan (16.90±0.45%) was obtained from extraction using NaOH at a temperature of 70℃ for 90 minutes with the aid of ultrasonication. Molecular weight and viscosity of ulvan extracted with ultrasonication-assisted showed a lower point than that ulvan extracted without ultrasonication. FTIR results confirmed the absorption band of the sulfate group, indicating the residue of rhamnose at a wavelength of 1125 cm-1 and C-O-S stretching at 983 cm-1. Ulvan extracted by sonication demonstrated sulfate content of 39, 58, and 53% for the solvent of aquades, HCl, and NaOH, respectively. The ultrasonication aid affected the sulfate content of 2-14% higher than that sulfate of ulvan produced from the conventional method.
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