This paper examines the identification of key indicators that could be used to measure the success of reclamation plants in post-exploration oil and gas mining areas. The main objective of this research was to find key indicators or variables for evaluating the level success of reclamation results in the post-mining of oil and gas area. In this study, 44 environmental variables of the physical, biological, soil, water and air indicators were analyzed from 70 field plots of 6 reclamation and 2 natural forest sites. The analysis methods included (1) cluster analysis using the Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering method with the Ward's method, and (2) quadratic discriminant analysis. The results of the clustering analysis showed that there were some clusters due to variation of biomass, water, soil and air conditions. The three clusters developed based on water and/or air variables provided high cophenetic correlation (0.80) with low within-cluster (14.5%) and high between-cluster variations (85.5%). Based on the multicollinearity analysis, average vector difference test, variance matrix variance test, unidimensional test of each variable and quadratic discriminant function, this study found that there were 3 key indicators determining variations of the quality of the reclamation plantations within the study sites, namely, biological indicator of biomass volume (Bio_B); soil indicator of P content in the soil (Tnh_P), saturation base of soil (Tnh_Kb), Manganese (Mn) content in the soil (Tnh_Mn), Sulfur content in the soil (Tnh_S), percentage of ash in the soil (Tnh_Ab), percentage of clay in the soil (Tnh_Li), and water indicator of chloride content in the surface water (Air_Cl). The examination on four classes of the reclamation quality showed that the classes were successfully classified having excellent cross-validation error matrix with overall accuracy more than 90%.
Block, W. M., Franklin, A. B., Ward Jr, J. P., Ganey, J. L., & White, G. C. (2001). Design and implementation of monitoring studies to evaluate the success of ecological restoration on wildlife. Restoration Ecology, 9, 293–303. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1526-100x.2001.009003293.x
Budiana, I. G. E. (2017). Evaluasi tingkat keberhasilan revegetasi lahan bekas tambang batubara di PT Kitadin Site Embalut Kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara Kalimantan Timur. Jurnal Agrifor, 195–208.
Chambers, J. C., Brown, R. W., & Williams, B. D. (1994). An evaluation of reclamation success on Idaho's phosphate mines. Restoration Ecology, 2, 4–16. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.1994.tb00037.x
Clark, E. V., & Zipper, C. E. (2016). Vegetation influences near-surface hydrological characteristics on a surface coal mine in eastern USA. Catena, 139, 241–249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2016.01.004
Davidson, I., & Ravi, S. 2005. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering with constraints: Theoretical and empirical results. European Conference on Principles of Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery (pp. 5970), Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/11564126_11
Dimitriu, P. A., Prescott, C. E., Quideau, S. A., & Grayston, S. J. (2010). Impact of reclamation of surface-mined boreal forest soils on microbial community composition and function. Soil Biology Biochemistry, 42, 2289–2297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.09.001
Fisher, R. A. (1936). The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic problems. Annals of eugenics, 7, 179–188. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1809.1936.tb02137.x
Gardner, F. P., Pearce, R. B., & Mitchell, R. L. (2017). Physiology of crop plants. Jodhpur (Raj.): Scientific Publishers.
Hardjowigeno, S. (2003). Soil science (Ilmu tanah). Jakarta: Akademia Pressindo.
Hendrychová, M. (2008). Reclamation success in post-mining landscapes in the Czech Republic: A review of pedological and biological studies. Landscape Study, 1, 63–68.
Herwanda, R., Murdiono, W. E., & Koesriharti, K. (2017). Aplikasi nitrogen dan pupuk daun terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman bawang Mmerah (Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum). Jurnal Produksi Tanaman, 5.
Huberty, C. J., & Olejnik, S. (2006). Applied MANOVA and discriminant analysis. Georgia: John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/047178947X
Iskandar, S., & Suryaningtyas, D. (2012). Reklamasi lahan-lahan bekas tambang: Beberapa permasalahan terkait sifat-sifat tanah dan solusinya. In Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknologi Pemupukan dan Pemulihan Lahan Terdegradasi, (pp. 29–36). Bogor.
Lembaga Penelitian Tanah. (1983). Pedoman pengamatan tanah di lapangan. Bogor: Lembaga Penelitian Tanah.
Macdonald, S. E., Landhäusser, S. M., Skousen, J., Franklin, J., Frouz, J., Hall, S., ..., & Quideau, S. (2015). Forest restoration following surface mining disturbance: Challenges and solutions. New Forests, 46, 703–732. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-015-9506-4
Mansur, I. (2012). Integrating biodiversity conservation and agricultural production in mine reclamation for sustainable development. Journal of Developments in Sustainable Agriculture, 7, 97–102.
Meng, L., Feng, Q., Wu, K., & Meng, Q. (2012). Quantitative evaluation of soil erosion of land subsided by coal mining using RUSLE. International Journal of Mining Science Technology, 22, 7–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmst.2011.06.001
Murtagh, F., & Legendre, P. (2014). Ward's hierarchical agglomerative clustering method: Which algorithms implement Ward's criterion? Journal of classification, 31, 274–295. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00357-014-9161-z
Rathore, C., & Wright, R. (1993). Monitoring environmental impacts of surface coal mining. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 14, 1021–1042. https://doi.org/10.1080/01431169308904394
Rice, E. W., Baird, R. B., & Eaton, A. D. (Eds.). (2017). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (23rd ed.). Washington DC: American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation.
Salisbury, F. B., & Ross, C. W. (1995). Fisiologi tumbuhan jilid 3. Bandung: ITB.
Saraçli, S., Doğan, N., & Doğan, İ. (2013). Comparison of hierarchical cluster analysis methods by cophenetic correlation. Journal of Inequalities Applications, 203. https://doi.org/10.1186/1029-242X-2013-203.
Singh, G., Pal, A., Niranjan, R. K., & Kumar, D. (2010). Assessment of environmental impacts by mining activities: A case study from Jhansi open cast mining site-Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Experimental sciences.
Srivastava, S., Gupta, M. R., & Frigyik, B. A. (2007). Bayesian quadratic discriminant analysis. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 8, 1277–1305.
Syaufina, L., & Ikhsan, M. (2013). Estimasi simpanan karbon di atas permukaan lahan reklamasi pasca tambang PT. Antam UBPE Pongkar Provinsi Jawa Barat. Jurnal Silvikultur Tropika, 4, 100–107.
Taylor, M., Kim, N., Hill, R., & Chapman, R. (2010). A review of soil quality indicators and five key issues after 12 yr soil quality monitoring in the Waikato region. Soil Use Management, 26, 212–224. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-2743.2010.00276.x
Vasuki, Y., Yu, L., Holden, E.-J., Kovesi, P., Wedge, D., & Grigg, A. H. (2019). The spatial-temporal patterns of land cover changes due to mining activities in the Darling Range, Western Australia: A visual analytics approach. Ore Geology Reviews, 108, 23–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2018.07.001
Widdowson, J. P. (1990). Rehabilitation planning and supervising mining operation minimize adverse environmental effect. In Procceding of The Joint Seminar on Environmental Effect of Mining in Watershed Management (pp. 22346–22351).
Wiraatmaja, I. W. (2016). Bahan ajar: Pergerakan hara mineral dalam tanaman. Denpasar: Universitas Udayana.
Zhang, L., Wang, J., Bai, Z., & Lv, C. (2015). Effects of vegetation on runoff and soil erosion on reclaimed land in an opencast coal-mine dump in a loess area. Catena, 128, 44–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2015.01.016
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika is an open access journal which means that all contents is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.