Ritual Capital for Rural Livelihood and Sustainable Tourism Development in Indonesia
Sustainable livelihood approach has been a strategic approach that can improve the economy of rural communities and create harmonization of socio-cultural, economic, environmental and political development through policies. However, it is holistic and contextual, enabling the existence of different capital characteristics formed based on the community's culture. The Indonesian context shows that customary rituals of the community in Kakara and Limau villages in North Halmahera Regency are forms of capital that mobilize claims and access to capital such as natural, human, physical, financial, and social capital. This article aims to describe the ritual capital in rural livelihood for sustainable tourism development. Key informants involved were leaders of community, traditions, religion and rural government and they were interviewed to obtain in-depth information about the ritual capital. The results indicate that the ritual capital was integrated with the rural tourism development, enhancing the capabilities of the customary community in the Kakara and Limau Village to access other capital. This finding supports the argument explaining that ritual capital is a livelihood asset in the context of tourism development in North Halmahera Regency, Indonesia.
Albore, A. (2018). Review on determinants of sustainable rural livelihood diversification of small holder farmer in Ethiopia. International Journal of Advanced Research (IJAR), 6(2), 251−259. https://doi.org/10.21474/ IJAR01/6436
Allison, E. H., & Ellis, F. (2001). The livelihood approach and management of small-scale fisheries. Marine Policy, 25(5), 377−388. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-597X(01)00023-9
Amal, A. M. (2010). Kepulauan rempah-rempah: Perjalanan sejarah Maluku Utara 1250-1950. Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia.
Ashley, C., & Carney, D. (1999). Sustainable livelihood: Lesson from early experience. London: DFID.
Barbulescu, A. (2014). Official order and ritual disobedience in Transnistria's ghettos. Sfera Politicii, 22(6), 114−126.
Barrows, C. W. (2000). An exploratory study of food and beverage training in private clubs. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 12(3), 190−197. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110010320751
Baumman, P. (2000). Sustainable livelihood and political capital: Arguments and evidence from decentralization and natural resource management in India. London: ODI Working Paper.
Becker, G. (1994). Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis with special reference to education. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226041223.001.0001
Belete, A. (2018). Determinants of rural household's livelihood strategies in Machakel Woreda, East Gojjam zone, Amhara Nation Regional State, Ethiopia. Developing Country Studies. 8(10),1−6.
Bollingtoft, A., Ulhoi, J. P., Madsen, A. H., Neergard, H. (2003). Effect of financial factors on the performance of new venture companies in high tech and knowledge intensive industries: An empirical study in Denmark. International Journal of Management, 20(1), 535−547.
Bourdieu, P. (1986). Le capital social: Notes provisoires. Actes de la recherché en sciences sociales, 31(1980), 2−3.
Bourdieu, P., & Wacquant, L. (1992). An invitation to reflexive sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Burger, P., & Christen, M. (2011). Towards a capability approach of sustainability. Journal of Cleaner Production, 19(8), 787−795. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.06.019
Chambers, R., & Conway, G. (1991). Sustainable rural livelihood: Practical concepts for 21st century. Brighton: IDS Working Paper 296.
Coleman, J. (1998). Social capital in the creation of human capital. The American Journal of Sociology, 94(1), 97−100.
Coleman, J. S. (1994). Foundation of social theory. Cambridge MA: Belknap Press.
Costa, C. (2001). An emerging tourism planning paradigm? A comparative analysis between town and tourism planning. International Journal of Tourism Research, 3(6), 425−441. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.277
Cottyn, I. (2018). Livelihood trajectories in context of repeated displacement: Empirical evidence from Rwanda. Sustainability, 10(10), 1−13. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103521
Cronje, C. J., & Moolman, S. (2013). Intellectual capital: Measurement, recognition and reporting. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 16(1), 1−12. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajems.v16i1.244
Dereje, T., & Abeje, B. (2018). Rural livelihood strategies and household food security of farmers surrounding Derba Cement Factory, Oromia Region,
Ethopia. Rural Sustainability Research, 40(335), 2−7. https://doi.org/ 10.2478/plua-2018-0006
Dhesi, A. S. (2000). Social capital and community development. Community Development Journal, 35(3), 199−214. https://doi.org/10.1093/cdj/35.3.199
Dwivedi, S. K., & Hussain, M. S. (2018). Core responsibilities of government, local communities, state tourism authority for various drawbacks and lacks in facilities development, protection and conservation of sun temple at Konark. International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts. 6(5), 69−77.
Ekins, P., Simon, S., Deutsch, L., Folke, C., & De Groot, R. (2003). A framework for the practical applications of the concept of critical natural capital and strong sustainability. Ecological Economics, 44(2−3), 165−185. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(02)00272-0
Eshun, I., Golo, H. K., & Dankwa, S. (2019). Livelihood strategies and outcomes of fisher folk in selected rural coastal communities in Ghana. Journal of Culture, Society and Development, 48(2019), 35−45. https://doi.org/10.7176/JCSD/48-05
Fukuyama, F. (1995). Trust: The social virtues and the creation of prosperity. London: Hamish Hamilton.
Fukuyama, F. (2002). Social capital, civil society and development. Third World Quarterly, 22(1), 7−20. https://doi.org/10.1080/713701144
Galor, O., & Moav, O. (2004). From physical to human capital accumulation: Inequality and the process of development. The Review of Economic Studies, 71(4), 1001−1026. https://doi.org/10.1111/0034-6527.00312
Gariggos, S. F. J., Bottela, C. M. D., & Gonzales, C. T. F. (2018). Social capital, human capital, and sustainability: A bibliometric and visualization analysis. Sustainability, 10(12), 1−19. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124751
Gebru., G. W., Ichoku, H.E., & Phil-Eze, P. O. (2018). Determinants of livelihood diversification strategies in eastern Tigray region of Ethiopia. Agriculture & Food Security, 7(1), 1−9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40066-018-0214-0
Gelan, D. T. (2018). Livelihood diversification determinants in the Teff growing area of east Shoa zone of Oromia region, Ethiopia. Research on Humanities and Social Science, 8(23), 9−18.
Gracial, T. P. J., & Martinez, S. P. (2007). Effects of working capital management on SME profitability. International Journal of Managerial Finance, 3(2), 164−177. https://doi.org/10.1108/17439130710738718
Hall, P. (1999). Social capital in Britain. British Journal of Political Science, 29(3), 41−61. https://doi.org/10.1017/ S0007123499000204
Handoko, W. (2017). The expasion of islamic power of Ternate sultanate in the east coastal of North Halmahera. Kapata Arkeologi, 13(1), 95−108. https://doi.org/10.24832/kapata.v13i1.396
Harper, R. (2001). Social capital: A review of the literature. London: Social Analysis and Reporting Division, Office of National Statistics.
Hines, T. (2000). An evaluation of two qualitative methods (focus group interviews and cognitive maps) for conducting research into entrepreneurial decision making. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 3(1), 7−16. https://doi.org/10.1108/13522750010310406
Hsieh, C.M., Tsai, B.K., & Chen, H. S. (2017). Residents' attitude toward aboriginal cultural tourism development: An integration of two theories. Sustainability, 9(6), 903. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9060903
Jackson, W. A. (2005). Capabilities, culture and social structure. Review of Social Economy, 63(1), 101−124. https://doi.org/10.1080/00346760500048048
James, A., & Bansilal, S. (2010). Indigenous knowledge practitioners' sustainable livelihood practices: A case study. Indilinga: Agrican Journal of Indigenous Knowledge System, 9(1), 73−83.
Jansen, H. G. P., Pender, J. L., Damon, A., Wielemaker, W., & Schipper, R. A. (2006). Policies for sustainable development in the hillsides of Honduras: A quantitative livelihoods approach. Agricultural Economics, 34(2), 141−153. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-0864.2006.00114.x
Ketut, S. (2012). Cultural capital as the basis for developing tourism at Kuta traditional village. Mudra, 27(3), 315−323.
Kippendorf, K. (1980). Content analysis: An introdution to its methodology. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.
Kotalaha, J., Sasongko, G. (2018). Local knowledge “Makiriwo” in the sustainable livelihood perspective (case of Apulea coconut farm community in North Halmahera regency, Indonesia). Sodality, 6(3), 253−261. https://doi.org/10.22500/sodality.v6i3.25455
Kotarski, H. (2012). The role of human and social capital in the local and regional development on the example of Podkarpackie Viovodeship. Studia Humanistyczne AGH, 11(4), 183−190.https://doi.org/10.7494/human.2012.11.4.183
Krueger, R.A. (1994). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Kuzmin, O. Y., & Shakhno, A. Y. (2018). The national model of state regulation of human capital development under conditions of global competition. Provlemi Ekonomiki, 2(36), 88−97.
Lapian, A. B. (2009). Orang laut-bajak laut-raja laut: sejarah kawasan laut sulawesi abad XIX. Jakarta: Komunitas Bambu.
Luchian, I. (2015). Globalization and financial crisis. Economy and Sociology, 3(3), 107−111.
Macbeth, j., Carson, D., & Northcote, J. K. (2004). Social capital, tourism and regional development: SPCC as a basis for innovation and sustainability. Current Issues in Tourism, 7(6), 502−522. https://doi.org/10.1080/1368350050408668200
Mamman, A., Kamoche, K., Zakaria, H. B., & Agbedi, M. (2018). Developing human capital in Africa: Carving a role for human resource professionals and practitioners. Human Resources Development International, 21(5), 444−462. https://doi.org/10.1080/13678868.2018. 1464290
McAreavey, R., & McDonagh, J. (2011). Sustainable rural tourism: Lessons for rural development. Sociologia Ruralis, 51(2), 175−194. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9523.2010.00529.x
Meyer, E. (2013). Rituals and social capital in the book of Levicticus? an attempt at an interdisciplinary discussion. Dutch Reformed Theological Journal, 54(3), 263−275. https://doi.org/10.5952/54-3-4-381
Moe, T., Alfsen, K. H., & Greaker, M. (2015). Sustaining welfare for future generations: A review note on the capital approach to the measurement of sustainable development. Challenges in Sustainability, 1(2013), 16−26. https://doi.org/10.12924/cis2013.01010016
Moser, C., North A., Conway T., Ferguson, C., & Vizard, P. (2001). To claim our right: Livelihood security, human rights and sustainable development. London: ODI.
Naping, H., Asba, R., Arsyad, A., Hamdat, S., Kahar., Sumantri, I., Hamid, R., ... & Irwan, L. (2013). Halmahera Utara: Sejarah perkembangan peradaban di bumi Hibualamo. Makassar: Yayasan Bina Generasi.
Natallia, K. (2014). Human capital as the major financing in the welfare state. Megatrend Revija, 11(1), 73−88. https://doi.org/10.5937/MegRev1401073K
Nawrotzki, R., Hunter, L. M., & Dickison, T. W. (2012). Natural resources and rural livelihoods: Differences between migrants and non-migrants in Madagascar. Demographic Research, 26(24), 661−700. https://doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2012.26.24
Neilson, J, & Shonk, F. (2014). Chained to development? livelihoods and global value chains in the coffee-producing Toraja region of Indonesia. Australian Geographer, 45(3), 269−288. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049182.2014.929998
Njatrijani, R. (2018). Local knowledge in Semarang culture perspectives. Gema Keadilan, 5(1), 16−31. https://doi.org/10.14710/gk.5.1.16-31
Norton, A., & Foster, M. (2001). The potential of using sustainable livelihoods approaches in poverty reduction strategy papers. Working Paper 148. London: ODI.
Picard, M. (2008). Balinese identity as tourist attraction : From cultural tourism to Bali erect. Tourist Studies, 8(2), 155−173. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468797608099246
Platteau, J. (1989). The dynamics of fisheries development in developing countries : A general overview. Development and Change, 20(4), 565−597. https://doi.org/10. 1111/j.1467-7660.1989.tb00358.x
Pranoto, H., & Wibowo, A. (2018). The role of local wisdom “Piil Pesenggiri” in multi-ethnic counseling services. Jurnal Bimbingan Konseling Indonesia, 3(2), 36−42. https://doi.org/10.26737/jbki.v3i2.714
Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling alone: America's declining social capital. Journal of Democracy, 6(1), 65−78. https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.1995.0002
Putnam, R. D. (1993). Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt7s8r7
Rakodi, C. (2002). A capital assets framework for analyzing household livelihood strategies: Implications for policy. Development Policy Review, 14(3), 315−342. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-7679.00090
Rankin, K. N. (2002). Social capital, microfinance, and the politics of development. Feminist Economics, 8(1), 1−24. https://doi.org/10.1080/13545700210125167
Richard, G., & Rotariu, I. (2013). The impact of cultural events on tourism development: Sibiu- the European cultural capital. Seria Economie, 1(1), 6−12.
Robaa, B., & Tolossa, D. (2016). Rural livelihood diversification and its effects on household food security: A case study at Damota gale Woreda, Wolayta, Southern Ethiopia. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review, 32(1), 93−118. https://doi.org/10.1353/eas.2016.0001
Robbins, D. (2000). Bourdieu and culture. London: Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446218549
Robison, L., J., Schmid, A. A., & Sile, M. E. (2000). Is social capital really capital ? Review of Social Economy, 60(1), 1−21. https://doi.org/10.1080/00346760110127074
Romanos, M., & Jenkins, L. D. (2013). Changing cultural developments along a tourist route in Bali. Almatoruism-Journal of Tourism, Culture and Territorial Development, 4(8): 19−31. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.2036-5195/4081
Rothstein, B. (2001). Social capital in the social democratic welfare sociability. Politics and Society, 29(2), 27−41. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032329201029002003
Schultz, T. W. (1961). Investment in human capital. The American Economic Review, 1(2), 1−17.
Scoones, I. (1998). Sustainable rural livelihood: A framework for analysis. Brighton: IDS Working Paper 71.
Sedana, G., Ambarawati, I. G. A. A., & Windia, W. (2014). Strengthening social capital for agricultural development: Lessons from Guama, Bali, Indonesia. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development, 11(2), 39−49.
Sergej, F. (2012). Religious capital and religious rewards: A study in the economics of religious life. Panoeconomicus, 59(1), 117−127. https://doi.org/10.2298/PAN1201117F
Shilling, C. (2004). Physical capital and situated action: A new direction for corporeal sociology. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 25(4), 473−487. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/0142569042000236961
Sullivan, A., & Sheffrin, D. M. (2003). Economic principles in action. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Sumadi, K. (2012). Tourism development basis in traditional village of Kuta. International Journal of linguistics, Literature and Culture, 2(3), 124−132.
Swart, I., Haar, G.T., Wepener, C., & Barndard, M. (2010). The role of religious in social capital formation for poverty alleviation and social development: Theoretical and methodological points of departure of a South African exploration. Religion & Theology, 17(1), 61−82. https://doi.org/10.1163/157430110X517924
Tanjung, F. (2019). The influence of social capital in economic development in Indonesia: Macro Data Analysis of 2012 and 2014. International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research and Engineering, 5(3), 116−123. https://doi.org/10.31695/IJASRE.2019.33117
Taylor, S. (2017). Issues in measuring success in community-based indigenous tourism: Elites, kin groups, social capital, gender dynamics and income flows. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 25(3), 433−449. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/09669582.2016.1217871
Turner, S. (2007). Small-scale enterprise livelihoods and social capital in eastern Indonesia : Ethnic embeddedness and exclusion. The Professional Geographer, 5(4), 407−420. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9272.2007. 00631.x
van Praag, C. (2003). Business survival and success of young business owners. Journal of Small Business Economics, 21(1), 1−17. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024453200297
Wang, C.M., & Woods, M. (2013). The role of Guangxi in rural social movements: Two case studies from Taiwan. Journal of Agrarian Change, 13(2), 197−212. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0366.2012.00359.x
Wepener, C. (2010). Snert: Ritual-liturgical measurements and recipes for social capital. Verbum et Ecclesia, 31(1), 1−7. https://doi.org/10.4102/ve.v31i1.407
Whiteley, P. F. (2000). Economic growth and social capital. Political Studies, 48(3), 43−66. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9248.00269
Wiklund, J., & Sepherd, D. (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: A configurational approach. Journal of Business Venturing, 20(1), 71−91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2004. 01.001
Woolcock, M. (1998). Social capital and economic development toward a theoretical synthesis and policy framework. Theory and Society, 2(1), 1−7. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006884930135
Xu, D., Zhang, J., Rasul, G., Liu, S., Xie, F., Cao, M., & Liu, E. (2015). Household livelihood strategies and dependence on agriculture in the mountainous settlements in the Tree Georges Reservoir Area, China. Sustainability, 7(5): 1342−1355. https://doi.org/10.3390/su7054850
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika is an open access journal which means that all contents is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.