Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis 2022-12-09T13:40:38+07:00 Dr. Ir. Idqan Fahmi, MEc Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Jurnal Manajemen dan Agribisnis (JMA) or Journal of Management &amp; Agribusiness (JMA)</strong> (in English) publishes articles on agribusiness and strategic management. The aims of the journal are to disseminate knowledge and insights in the areas of agribusiness and strategic management based on academic rigor and relevance to academics, researchers, professionals, and/or public decision-makers. We particularly focus on research in the Asia-Pacific region but welcome perspectives from other regions of the world that enhance our knowledge in this area. The journal publishes in the following areas of research:&nbsp; Supply Chain and Value Chain, Competitiveness, Innovations, Economics of Organisation and Industries, Strategic Management, Sustainable Business Development, Business Consumer Behaviour, and International Trade Issues. JMA is published by the&nbsp;<a href="">School of Business, IPB University (SB-IPB)</a> associated with the Indonesian Society of Agricultural Economics (PERHEPI/ISAE). JMA was first published at the beginning of 2004 twice per year in frequency in March and October. Since 2012, JMA has been published three times per year in March, July, and November. The editor receives articles of empirical research and reviews in agribusiness &amp; strategic management.</p> <p>JMA is a peer-reviewed journal that has been&nbsp;<strong>Accredited&nbsp;</strong>by the Directorate General of Higher Education (DGHE), Republic of Indonesia No 12/M/Kp/IE/2015 which is valid for 5 (five) years since enacted on 11 May 2015. Based on the Directorate General of Research and Development Strengthening, Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia No 30/E/KPT/2018 JMA get&nbsp;<strong>ranked 2 accredited (SINTA 2)</strong>&nbsp;status. Based on Directorate General of Research and Development Strengthening, Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia No 36/E/KPT/2019 JMA get&nbsp;<strong>ranked 2 accredited (SINTA 2)</strong>&nbsp;status.</p> <p>JMA has been registered in&nbsp;<strong>Crossref (since 2015), ACI - ASEAN Citation Index, DOAJ, Indonesian Publication Index (IPI), SINTA Rank 2, Google Scholar,&nbsp;</strong>and other scientific databases.&nbsp;</p> <p>Editors can revise the paper without changing the substance and content after a blind review process. The articles sent by the author must be an original script and is not being considered for publication by other journal or publishers.</p> <p><strong>P-ISSN: <a href=";1180428118&amp;1&amp;&amp;">1693-5853</a></strong><br><strong>E-ISSN: <a href=";1416204681&amp;1&amp;&amp;">2407-2524</a></strong></p> <p>Download the <a href=""><strong>Submissions Guidelines&nbsp;</strong></a> and <strong><a href="" target="_self">Author Guidelines</a></strong></p> <p>______________________________________________________________</p> <p><strong><span style="color: blue;"><img src="/public/site/images/adminjmagr/icon_next.gif" alt="">&nbsp;<strong><img src="/public/site/images/adminjmagr/icon_next.gif" alt="">&nbsp;</strong> JMA started in 2018 only&nbsp;receives articles&nbsp;using english&nbsp;<strong><img src="/public/site/images/adminjmagr/icon_next.gif" alt="">&nbsp;</strong><strong><img src="/public/site/images/adminjmagr/icon_next.gif" alt="">&nbsp;</strong></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="color: blue;">______________________________________________________</span></strong></p> Factors Affecting the Technical Efficiency of Cassava Farming in Wonogiri Regency 2022-12-09T13:32:38+07:00 Anggi Fitria Cahyaningsih Endang Siti Rahayu Kusnandar <p>Cassava is a potential commodity to develop because it is used for consumption and industrial raw materials. Wonogiri Regency has the highest harvest and production area in Central Java. Such a high production level is not comparable to a low level of productivity. The productivity of cassava in Wonogiri Regency is only 18.99 tons per hectare lower than the national productivity, which is 25.95 tons per hectare. Therefore, it is necessary to use inputs as an efficient resource to increase productivity. This study analyzed the technical efficiency and factors affecting the efficiency of cassava. Primary data from 75 cassava farmers in Wonogiri Regency. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and regression Tobit were the data analysis methods. DEA results showed efficiency scores ranging from 0.107 to 1.28% of cassava farmers in Wonogiri were technically efficient in carrying variable return to scale, with an average score of 0.580. Cassava farmers in Wonogiri Regency should increase the efficiency value by reducing slack inputs, namely cassava seeds, phonska fertilizer, and urea fertilizer. Tobit regression results show that farmer education and group membership significantly affect the efficiency of cassava. Farmers with higher education have better skills to adopt new technologies and use inputs more efficiently. The farmer group has a positive influence because it can provide information and discussion to overcome the problem of cassava farming.</p> <p>Keywords: cassava farming, DEA, efficiency, productivity, tobit regression</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis Readiness and Acceptance of Farmer Cards to Farmers in Sumenep Regency 2022-12-09T13:33:07+07:00 Laras Nur fitriani Darsono Umi Barokah <p>The Farmer’s Card becomes one of the requirements to get the subsidized fertilizer as a tool of access to banking services integrated into an E-wallet or ATM (Automatic Teller Machine). The new technology indicates the problem found in the field, which is the lack of awareness and knowledge of the farmers who own the Farmer’s Card in understanding the function of each feature provided by the Card. This research is conducted to analyze the readiness and the acceptance factors of the farmers who own the Farmer’s Card toward the interest of using the Farmer’s Card in the Sumenep Regency. The Technology Readiness and Acceptance Model (TRAM), which is the collaboration of the Technology Readiness Index (TRI) and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), is being used to analyze the interest in the use of the Farmer’s Card. Quantitative data is collected through interviews with structured questionnaires that refer to the previous research indicators on the Technology Readiness and Acceptance Model (TRAM). The sample was conducted on 140 farmers who own the Farmer’s Card. The analysis was performed using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) through the SmartPLS software. The results of the hypothesis show that the function or the advantage of the Farmer’s Card has a direct and significant influence on the interest of the farmers in using the Farmer’s Card. On the other hand, the simplicity of using the Farmer’s Card is considered insignificant and challenging for the farmers. The Farmer’s Card program can be successful. It is suggested that the government and the farmers, who own the Farmer’s Card, need to approach and improve their communication through intensive guidance.</p> <p>Keywords: readiness, acceptance, farmer's card, PLS-SEM, subsidized fertilizer</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis The Effectiveness of Fabric Safeguards in Protecting and Improving the Indonesian Textile Industry Competitiveness 2022-12-09T13:33:37+07:00 Siti Nurkomariyah Avia Enggar Tyasti <p>This study investigates the effectiveness of fabric safeguards set by the Indonesian government on protecting and improving the competitiveness of the textile industry in the domestic and global markets. Data on exports and imports of 107 HS codes of fabrics subject to additional import duties in 2011-2020 are used to measure Indonesia's competitiveness compared with six major exporting countries. The Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) and the Trade Specialization Index (TSI) interpret the Indonesian fabric competitiveness and its competitors. Independent variables of this research are Safeguard Measure Import Duty (BMTP), Most Favoured Nation (MFN) rates, period of investigation, exchange rate, and inflation. The results show that the safeguard, MFN, and period of investigation significantly affect the decline in fabric imports, but other variables have no significant effect. The regime effectively protects Indonesia's textile industry, which is marked by a decrease in the value and volume of imports during the validity period. The RCA indicates that Indonesia does not have a comparative advantage, and according to the TSI, Indonesia is an importing country. BMTP cannot change Indonesia's position as a net exporter and improve its competitiveness. This study implies that it is necessary to increase investment in more efficient production machines with high productivity, optimize the supply chain, reduce production and enterprise costs, and restructure business models; thus, their competitiveness increases in domestic and foreign markets.</p> <p>Keywords: BMTP, fabric, comparative advantage, trade index, impor duties</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis Competitiveness and Determinants of Indonesian Frozen Shrimp Exports to Non-Traditional Markets 2022-12-09T13:34:06+07:00 Wiwiek Rindayati Raihan Akbar <p>Shrimp is an Indonesian fishery commodity with a high selling value in domestic and international markets. Frozen shrimp, as a type of shrimp exported from fishery products, has enormous potential to be developed as one of the mainstay commodities in the fisheries sector. However, Indonesia's frozen shrimp exports in the last five years have fluctuated and are still unable to compete with competing countries in exporting to main destination countries. Expanding the export market by looking at non-traditional markets as new destination markets to increase its exports again is necessary. This study analyses the competitiveness and determinants of Indonesian frozen shrimp exports to non-traditional markets. The research methods used are Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA), Export Product Dynamic (EPD), X-Model to analyze the competitiveness and panel data regression to analyze determinants of Indonesian frozen shrimp exports to non-traditional markets. The results showed that Indonesian frozen shrimp are competitive in several non-traditional market destination countries. The estimation results in panel data regression show that the variables of real GDP per capita of the destination country, economic distance, export prices, actual exchange rates, population growth, and Logistic Performance Index (LPI) Indonesian and country of destination have a significant influence on Indonesia's frozen shrimp exports to non-markets traditional.</p> <p>Keywords: EPD, frozen shrimp, non-traditional market, panel data regresion, RCA, X-Model</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis Palm Oil Import Demand in North America Countries 2022-12-09T13:34:32+07:00 Hansen Tandra Arif Imam Suroso Yusman Syaukat Mukhamad Najib <p>Palm oil is one of the agricultural commodities grown in world trade. North America is one of the regions with high import demand, so that the region can be observed as an export destination. This study aimed to examine the palm import demand in three selected North American Countries (United States of America (USA), Canada and Mexico) and its determinants. Autoregressive Distributive Lags (ARDL) was applied in this study between 1990 and 2017. The results indicate that the demand for palm oil in North American countries has increased. However, the import growth and shares have fluctuated relatively. GDP, GDP Indonesia, GDP Malaysia world palm oil prices, soybean oil prices, and biodiesel production significantly affect palm oil imports in the USA in the long and short-run. The GDP and GDP of Indonesia are the factors that influence palm oil import in Canada and Mexico in the long run. However, we found the impact of GDP Malaysia and GDP Indonesia in Canada in the short-run. Moreover, Indonesia's GDP and GDP significantly influenced palm oil import in Mexico. This research implies that oil palm exporting countries need to consider these factors, especially GDP, before expanding their market to North American countries as one of the biggest palm oil markets in the global world.</p> <p>Keywords: business analytics, biofuel, gdp, import, palm oil, price, north america</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis Determination of Success Criteria for Agricultural Social Startups in Indonesia 2022-12-09T13:34:58+07:00 Silmi Tsurayya Eko Ruddy Cahyadi Elisa Anggraeni <p>It is difficult for social startups to select the most relevant key performance indicators (KPIs) because it is difficult to find a shared impact language to code, classify, and interpret the impact. This study aims to determine key impact performance indicators for assessing success in agricultural social startups in Indonesia. We applied multi-case studies approach to four leading Indonesian agricultural social startups. In total, eight experts consisting of co-founders, human resources managers, and managing partners on each social startup have been asked to assess the importance of success criteria and the performance of the corresponding company in fulfilling the requirements. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to determine the relative importance of impact themes and strategic goals. The AHP results showed that smallholder agriculture is the most critical impact theme to achieve as success criteria. Five of the 12 strategic goals with the highest priority were explained as candidates of KPIs: the financial health of farmers, better and stable pricing, social equity and justice, farm profitability, and food availability and diversity. The KPIs developed in this study are anticipated to be utilized by stakeholders involved in the agricultural social startup ecosystems, including practitioners, impact investors, and policy-makers.</p> <p>Keywords: social entrepreneurship, social impact, social performance, impact assessment, and evaluation</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis Impact of Rice Production, Rice Supply And Rice Prices on Food Security in North Timor District 2022-12-09T13:35:55+07:00 Emanuel Be <p>This research was conducted in North Central Timor District, with the aim of analyzing food security by making the variables of rice production, rice supply, and rice prices as indicators that have an impact on food security. The analytical approach used is quantitative analysis with the ordinary least square. The results of the research analysis show that rice production has a positive and significant effect on food security. The availability of rice affects food security. Meanwhile, the price of rice has no effect on food security. Rice is a basic need so that when there is a price change it does not affect food security in the community. From the results of this study, it is hoped that the local government will carry out an extensification and diversification program for agricultural land so that there will be more and more variety in preparing food security for the people as well as adding knowledge and references for writers related to food security for the people of North Central Timor.</p> <p>Keywords: rice production, rice availability, rice prices, food security</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis Price Transmission Between Input and Output Markets: The Covid-19 Effect on Laying Hens’ Industry in Indonesia 2022-12-09T13:36:22+07:00 Nur Afni Evalia Harianto Rita Nurmalina Dedi Budiman Hakim <p>Corn and poultry are two strategic commodities supporting food security and highly dependent on one another. This study analyses the short-term and long-term relationship between the price variables for eggs, broiler, and corn. It determines the effect of COVID-19 at the producer and consumer levels on the price of eggs in 28 provinces in Indonesia using the Panel Autoregressive Distributed Lag (PARDL) – Pooled Mean Group (PMG) approach. The PARDL estimation showed a short-term relationship between egg, broiler, and corn price variables at the producer and consumer levels, and this is shown by a significant positive and negative relationship in several provinces. There is a substitution relationship between laying hens and broiler in North Sumatra, Riau, South Sumatra, West Java, Central Java, Banten, West Nusa Tenggara, North Sulawesi, and West Papua, while the complementary relationship only occurs in Bali. In addition, the Indonesian laying hen industry should be supported by integrated policies from upstream to downstream. This is a policy of the lowest and the highest retail price and those that regulates the creation of corn supply balance inputs as the main feed for laying hens.</p> <p>Keywords: corn, COV-19, laying hens, PARDL, price transmission</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis Development of Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) With Self-Efficacy to Explain The Intention To Be A Farmer in The Zinenial Generation 2022-12-09T13:36:56+07:00 I Gusti Ngurah Jaya Agung Widagda K Ni Nyoman Kerti Yasa Putu Laksmita Dewi Rahmayanti I Gusti Ayu Tirtayani Ida Bagus Agung Dharmanegara <p>The purpose of this study was to develop a theory of planned behavior (TPB) that explains the intentions of Generation Z farmers using self-efficacy variables. The population of this study is Gen Z from Bali. The sample size used was 210 with the planned sampling method. The analysis technique used is path analysis by SEM-PLS. Results showed that attitudes did not affect willingness to farm. Subjective norms and PBC had a positive and significant effect on intention to become a farmer, attitudes, and self-efficacy between subjective norms and PBC. and it made a big impression. , and self-efficacy can act as mediators of attitudes, subjective norms, and the impact PBC has on their intent to become a Gen Z farmer in Bali. It is therefore important that government, educational institutions and parents understand that farming is a good career, the more self-efficacy a person has towards farming, the easier it is for someone to get into it Enter Farming Farmer So You Can Encouraged Gen Z have big intentions to become farmers. Likewise, the availability of land and farming skills must find a solution so that they continue to improve in order to increase the intention to become a farmer in the Z generation.</p> <p>Keywords: attitude, subjective norm, PBC, self-efficacy, intention to become a farmer</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis The Analysis of Competition for Indonesian Palm Oil Derivative Products in The Italian Market 2022-12-09T13:37:26+07:00 Lito Ximenes Rita Nurmalina Amzul Rifin <p>Indonesia is the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil that has been recognized by foreign countries. Italy is the largest importer of Solid Palm Oil Fraction (SPOF) in the European Union. This article examines the analysis of SPOF Indonesia's competition in the Italian market. The method used is AIDS with a SUR approach that iterates through the application of STATA. The secondary data used is a time series on import value and quantities from 2004 to 2021 by Italy. The results showed that the price elasticity and expenditure of Indonesian SPOF imports were more elastic than Malaysia and the Netherlands. SPOF Indonesia is a luxury good but the price is lower. The elasticity of own price (Hicksian), the Netherlands is more elastic, while Indonesia is Marshallian. Cross price elasticity (Hicksian and Marshallian), the relationship between Indonesia-Malaysia compete by means of substitution. Meanwhile, the Netherlands-Indonesia and the Netherlands-Malaysia complement each other. Therefore, the Indonesian must add quality classes and added value to SPOF products in accordance with the quality of Malaysian and Netherlands products to increase consumer attractiveness. As a result, there will be bilateral cooperation between the two main producing countries of the SPOF in the Italian market to prevent a trade war.</p> <p>Keywords: AIDS, competition, elasticity demand, solid palm oil fraction</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis Rice Balance Simulation in Order To Support Sustainable Rice Self-Sufficiency Program in North Sumatera 2022-12-09T13:38:02+07:00 Agung Budi Santoso Vivi Aryati <p>The UPSUS program for food self-sufficiency launched by the government has succeeded in increasing national rice production, including in North Sumatera, by increasing the additional embedded area (LTT). However, the aspect of rice supply and distribution is still a problem, so rice imports are still carried out. This study aims to determine the rice balance by comparing the value of rice production to consumption every month throughout the year. The method used is a dynamic system approach using secondary data to build a simulation model. The simulation results show that, in general, the demand for rice has been fulfilled, although in certain months there is a deficit because the planting area in that month is not as large as in other months. Likewise, for some rice production centers, there are regions that experience rice deficits throughout the year. Therefore, efforts to improve supply chain management are an alternative solution to supporting sustainable rice self-sufficiency in North Sumatera.</p> <p>Keywords: simulation, balance, rice, self-sufficiency, sustainability</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis Consumer Perception of Charolais Mixed Breed (Lembu Sado) Meat Consumption in Terengganu, Malaysia 2022-12-09T13:38:34+07:00 Ain Dania Badrul Hisham Nurul Aisyah Mohd Suhaimi Nalini Arumugam Norhariani Mohd Nor Dikky Indrawan <p>Charolais mixed breed, also known as Lembu Sado locally, is a quite new cattle breed in Malaysia. Lembu Sado usually been raised in certain states in Malaysia such as Terengganu, Kelantan, Pahang, and Johor. Consumer perceptions on Lembu Sado meat for consumption are being measures since Lembu sado meat become relevant as one of meat beef. This study aims to identify the level of consumer perception on Lembu Sado meat consumption and to determine the significant factor of consumer perception that influence Lembu Sado meat consumption. A Google form survey was distributed to 50 respondents across Terengganu, to test the hypotheses whether the perception factors such as psychological, sensory, and marketing factors had influenced consumer consumption of Lembu Sado meat. Descriptive analysis and factor analysis were employed in this study. The results indicated that leanness of meat, health, ethnicity and advertisement are the main factors that influence the consumption of Lembu Sado meat. The findings may help consumer to decide which variables they should consider when purchasing Lembu Sado meat and also give them a clear view on what to expect when consuming Lembu Sado meat in the future.</p> <p>Keywords: consumer perception, lembu sado, factor analysis, Terengganu</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis A Strategy Map Model to Improve The Efficiency of Indonesian Banks 2022-12-09T13:39:06+07:00 Rahmat Mulyana Noer Azam Achsani Trias Andati Tubagus N.A. Maulana <p>This study approaches the problem of banking efficiency in an innovative way. It aims to identify workable solutions for enhancing the efficiency of Indonesian banks as something that is very important after this pandemic Covid-19 time. In order to build a strategy map model, the research is divided into four steps: (1) a desk study of best practices for enhancing banking efficiency; (2) a survey for choosing strategies; (3) a focus group discussion to identify relationships among strategies; and (4) an Analytic Network Process (ANP) modeling to prioritize and build a strategy map model. According to the Strategy Map, the following areas should be prioritized for efficiency improvement: Financial, Customer Value, Learning and Growth, and Internal Process. Indonesian bankers could allocate limited resources in ways that would boost the efficiency of the majority of banks based on the designed strategy map. Despite the fact that these strategy maps are not universal, the research shows that the suggested method is a practical and objective way to create more justified strategy maps.</p> <p>Keywords: banking efficiency, bank performance, efficiency strategy, strategy map, ANP</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis Added Value of Soybean Into Tempeh Chips in Kedungjenar Home Industry Centre, Blora Regency 2022-12-09T13:39:51+07:00 Rizqi Ragil Ayuningtyas Titik Ekowati Wahyu Dyah Prastiwi <p>The study aims to describe the characteristics of the home industry, analyze the income of the home industry, and analyze the added value of soybeans from primary products (soybeans) into processed products of tempeh chips. The research was conducted in Kedungjenar Home Industry Centre, Blora Regency, Central Java. The research method used was the census method by sampling saturated with 14 home industries of tempeh chips that process tempeh chips from soybeans as samples. Data were collected by observation and interview with a structured questionnaire. The analytical method used was descriptive analysis, cost analysis, revenue analysis, income analysis, and Hayami's added value analysis. Results showed that the characteristic of the tempeh chips home industry consist of the status is the main business, raw materials are obtained from shops, capital is personal fully funded, and an average labor of 4 people. The total revenue and income of tempeh processing are IDR8,160,000/month and IDR3,556.045/month, respectively. While tempeh chips are IDR21,133,000/month and IDR12,115,779/month, respectively. The added value of tempeh is IDR 16,130/month while the added value of tempeh chips is IDR20,990/month. Therefore, the added value of tempeh chips is greater than the added value of tempeh. The added value ratio for tempeh chips is classified as high (ratio &gt; 40%) and is feasible to work on.</p> <p>Keywords: Hayami method, income, production cost, profit, revenue</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis Strategies and Policies To Increase Competitiveness of Cassava in Lampung Province, Indonesia 2022-12-09T13:40:38+07:00 Teguh Endaryanto Teguh Wan Abbas Zakaria Lidya Sari Mas Indah Amanda Putra Seta <p>Cassava is an important commodity and has a strategic role for the Indonesian economy, especially for Lampung Province as the main producer. However, prices and provitas that tend to be low, policies are not in favor of farmers, and weak institutions, so the commodity's is low competitiveness. Government intervention in encouraging the competitiveness of a commodity by providing protection to producing farmers is felt to be very effective, especially for cassava commodities. Therefore, this study aims to analyze appropriate strategies and policies in increasing the competitiveness of cassava commodities in Lampung Province. Therefore, strategies and policies are needed to increase the competitiveness of cassava commodities in Lampung Province. The research was conducted in 2020 in Central Lampung and East Lampung Regencies with a total of 120 farmers as respondents. This research uses policy matrix analysis or PAM analysis and qualitative descriptive. The results showed that cassava has comparative and competitive advantages even though it is low. Therefore, the best policy is needed to increase the competitiveness of cassava commodities. The policy in order to increase the competitiveness of cassava in Lampung Province can be done by increasing output by 20% even though the cost of fertilizer increases by 20%. Some of these policies and strategies can have an impact on production cost efficiency, improve the quality of cassava, increase the quantity of cassava, and increase the income of cassava farmers.</p> <p>Keywords: cassava, competitiveness, improvement policy, PAM, strategy</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis