Vol. 2 No. 2 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu Teknologi Hasil Hutan
This research was conducted to study the effects of pretreatment with white-rot fungi on pulp properties of betung bamboo. Inoculum stocks of white-rot fungi (25 ml) were injected into polybag contained barkless fresh bamboo chips of 1.6 cm in width. Each polybag contained 221.21-230.43 g oven dry weight of chips. Bamboo chips in the polybags were inoculated by P. ostreatus and T. versicolor. Both of them were then incubated for 30 and 45 days in an incubator. Bamboo chips were cooked in open hot soda process. The cooked bamboo chips were then fibrillated using beater hollander and stone refiner. Yield, kappa numbers (TAPPI 236 cm-85) and freeness (CSF) of the pulp were then analyzed. Pulp yield pretreated with P.ostreatus and incubated for 30 days was the highest (increased by control 22.31%), while that pretreated with T.versicolor was the lowest (decreased by control 22.20%). The increasing of incubation time had positive correlation with the reduction of kappa number. Statistic test (ANOVA) at 95% level of confidence show that fungi give significant effect on kappa number, freeness, and kappa number degradation. Besides that fungi, the interaction between fungi and incubation times give significant effect on the yield changes and pulp yield. T. versicolor had better activity in 45 days of incubation. Pulp freeness resulted from this study were still lower than the desired value. Pretreatment of betung bamboo using T. versicolor with 45 days of incubation was considered better than the other treatments.
Keywords : Betung bamboo, biopulping, pulp yield, kappa number, degree of freeness
Candlenut shell as a lignocelullose raw material is a potential by-product for produce activated charcoal. It’s quality are affected by raw material and activated process i.e. temperature, activation time and activating agent. This paper intends to study the properties of activated charcoal made from candlenut shell. Candlenut shell was carbonization at 500 °Cfor 5 hour. Then activated using phosphoric acid in three different temperatures: 600 °C, 700 °C and 800 °C, in the duration time of 90, 120 and 150 minutes. The result shows that candlenut shell activated charcoal more influence of temperature than activation time. Overall, the activated charcoal met the Indonesian Standard requirement for commercialised activated charcoal with optimation activation at 800 °C for 120 minute.
Keywords : Candlenut shell, activated charcoal, optimation, activation, phosphoric acid
This research objective was to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard made from logging residue from plantation forest, namely akasia (Acacia mangium) and ekaliptus (Eucalyptus sp). Type particle was sawdust and bonded with Urea Formaldehyde (UF)-Isocyanate mix resin with ratio 100:15. Control resin (UF) was also prepared for comparison with resin solid content 52.7%. The target thickness of particleboard was 1 cm, pressed at 25 kg/ cm2 for 15 minutes at 140 °C. Level of resin was 7% based on oven dry particle weight. The boards were evaluated based on JIS A 5908-2003. The results showed:1) Utilization of UF-isocyanate mix resin improved the moisture content, thickness swelling, and water absorption of particleboard 2) The best particleboard from physical and mechanical properties point of view was particleboard made of akasia bonded with UF-isocyanate mix resin
Keywords : Physical and mechanical properties, logging residue, particleboard
Mahoni wood (Swietenia macrophylla King) contains holoseloluse and lignin. This research has been conducted to using lignin from mahoni wood for made polyurethane Isolate lignin is product isolation mahoni degradation with method increasing 4 gram isolate lignin into 150 ml ethylene glycol content 25 gram solution NaOH. The result of degradation used to synthesis polyurethane, then content of LT-PEG with methylen 4.4 difenil diisocyanaate (MDI) become polyurethane. To identified isolate lignin and product degradation lignin has been conducted to characterized with UV and FTIR method. The result shows that the specified spectra at maximum wavelength at 280 nm and 248 nm. While result from FTIR spectra shows that spevtra at wavenumber 1296 cm-1 and 1249 cm-1 is shows of propile guaiasil group. The function group propel siringile. While lignin from kind at siirngile, while the spectra at 1354 cm-1. The result synthesis polyurethane to characterized by the mechanical properties analysis with Tensile tester machine. It is therefore mechanical properties shows that Tensile strength and Young modulus bigger wuth enhancing lignin of content into polyurethane but percentage elongation increase.
Keywords : Mahoni wood, isolate lignin, degradation lignin, polyurethane
Forest products industry in Indonesia is now facing major issues such as a huge log deficit, a low industrial efficiency, and a declined in forest products competitiveness. Production cost and optimization analysis are then conducted to provide insight for the firms so they can operate efficiently and have high products competitiveness. The results show that a production cost varies from US$ 193.60 per m3 to US$ 247.68 per m3 with an average of US$ 214.50 per m3 and a firm’s profit would increase by 18% even though production decreased by 1.5% when the firm operates at optimum level.
Keywords : Plywood industry, optimization, production cost analysis, competitiveness
Pulai (Alstonia scholaris) was classification as IV-V for strenght class and V for durability class. This means that pulai has a low quality. One effort to improved the quality of pulai wood was densification process. This research aimed to evaluation the physical, mechanical and durability of pulai wood before and after densification process and to evaluated the temperature and pressing time on resulted the best quality of pulai wood. Densification was conducted on 160 °C and 180 °C with three pressing time 40 minute, 50 minute and 60 minute respectively. Densification targetted was 30%. Physical and mechanical process was conducted based on British Standard Methods No. 373 (1957), meanwhile durability test against subterranean termites was conducted with modified wood block test methods. Result of the research showed that densified pulai wood has the highest quality on physical, mechanical and durability properties than pulai wood control. The best densified treatment was on 180 °C with pressing time 60 minute. Densification process has improve the quality of pulai wood on one level class.
Keywords : Alstonia sp, densification process, Coptotermes curvignathus