Parental Environment Quality, Mother-Child Attachment, and Cognitive Development of Preschool Children with Working Mother

  • Saniatu Aini Department of Family and Consumer SciencesFaculty of Human Ecology, Bogor Agricultural university
  • Neti - Hernawati Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, Bogor Agricultural university
Keywords: parental environment quality, learning environment, attachment, cognitive development, working mother, preschool child


This research aimed to analyze parental environment quality, attachment between mother and children, cognitive development, and correlation among those variables. This research took place at Tanah Sareal and Bogor Barat, Bogor City and involved 39 children at preschool age with their mom chosen by purposive method. Data were collected by interview using structure questionnaire and observation. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and correlation. More than 50 percent children have the medium score of the parental environment quality,  attachment at average category, and cognitive development. Mothers education were correlated significantly positive with parental environment quality, learning, and attachment.


Download data is not yet available.


[AIMH] (UK) The Association for Infant Mental Health (UK), The Child Psychotherapy Trust. 1999. Promoting infant mental health: a framework for developing policies and services to ensure the healthy development of young children.

[ILO] International Labour Organization. 2013. Labour and Social Trends in Indonesia: Strengthening the Role of Decent Work in Growth Equity. International Labour Organization.

Ara N. 2012. Educated working mothers to hoist children academic performance, 1 (2).

Bowlby J. 1958. The nature of the child’s tie to his mother. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis.

Caplan T, Caplan F. 1983. The Early Childhood Years: The 2-6 Year Old. Toronto-New York-London-Sydney-Aucland: Bantam Books.

Cudy AC, Wolf EB. 2013. Presciptions and punishment for working moms: how race and work status affect judgement of mothers [penelitian]. Gender And Work : Challenging Conventional Wisdom. Harvard Business School.

Hastuti D. 2009. Care: Theory and Principles And Its Application in Indonesia. Bogor (ID): Department of Family and Consumer Sciences.

Hurlock E. 1980. Developmental Psychology; Istiwidayanti, Soedjarwo, translator; Sijabat RM, editor. Jakarta (ID): publisher. Translation from: Developmental Psycology: A Life-Span Approach. 5th ed.

Huston AC, Aronson SR. 2005. Mothers’ time with infant and time in employment as predictors of mother-child relationship and childrens’ early development. Child Development. 2 (76).

Lleras C. 2008. Employment, work conditions, and the home environment in singlemother families. Journal of Family Issues. DOI: 10.1177/0192513X08318842.

Malekpour M. 2007. Effect of attachment on early a development. The British of Development Disabilities, 105 (53).

Melhuish E. 2010. Imact Of The Home Learning Environment On Child Cogntive Development: Secondary Anaysis Of Data From Growing Up In Scoutland. Scoutland : Scottish Goverment Social Research.

Nelen AK, Grip A, Fouarge D. 2013. The relation between maternal work hours and cognitive outcomes of young school-aged children. Discussion Paper. No 7310.

Piaget J. Inhelder B. 2000.The Psychology of the Child; Weaver H, translator; Kagan J, editor. New York (USA) : Basic Book. Translation of : La Psychologie de I’enfant.

Puspitawati H. 2012. Gender and Family: Concept and Reality in Indonesia. Bogor (ID): IPB Press.

Quinn PJ. Caallaghan MO, Williams G, Najman JM, Andersen MJ, Bor W. 2001. The effect of breastfeeding on child development at 5 years: A Cohort Study. Journal Of Pediartrics And Child Health. 5 (37). DOI 10.1046/j.1440-1754.2001.00702.x.

Santrock JW. 2003. Developmental Psychology: Adolescene Youth Development, Saragih S, a translator; C Vishnu, editor; B Shinto, editor. Jakarta (ID): publisher. Translation of: Adolescence.

Sukardi AN. 2011. Study history of child development, sensitivity, and the attachment of mothers towards children aged 3-5tahun in indigenous villages urug Bogor regency. [Thesis] Bogor [ID]: Faculty of human ecology. Bogor Agricultural Institute.

Totsika V, Sylva K. 2004. The home observtion for measurment of the environment revisited. Child and Adolecent Mental Health. 9 (1).