Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Analisis Morfofisiologi, Anatomi, dan Histokimia pada Lima Spesies Tanaman Gulma sebagai Respons terhadap Merkuri dan Timbal

  • Rani Apriyani Raharja Sekolah Pascasarjana, Program Studi Biologi Tumbuhan, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor 16680
  • Hamim Hamim Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680
  • Yohana Caecilia Sulistyaningsih Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680
  • Triadiati Triadiati Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680


Plants can be used as phytoremediation agents to improve critical land due to gold mining activities. This experiment aimed to analyze the morphophysiological, anatomical, and histochemical responses of Brachiaria mutica, Cyperus kyllingia, Ipomea aquatica, Mikania micrantha, and Paspalum conjugatum in response to the application of heavy metals mercury and lead in the forms of Hg(NO3)2 and Pb(NO3)2 in hydroponic experiments and to determine the ability of these plants to accumulate both metals. Morphological responses were observed by measuring number of leaves and plant dry weight, and physiological responses were observed by analyzing photosynthetic pigments, while anatomical and histochemical responses were analyzed by microscopic observation to tranversal slice of roots and leaves. The results showed that the applications of Hg(NO3)2 and Pb(NO3)2 treatments caused decreases in number of leaves, plant dry weights, and photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid). The treatments also decreased leaf thickness due to the decrease in the epidermis, but they caused the increases in exodermis and endodermis of the roots. Mercury and lead were accumulated in large amounts in the roots, but accumulation in the shoot was less. Histochemical observation showed that lead was found in the roots of all the plants, especially in endodermic tissue and the vessel, whereas in the leaves the two metals were detected in the upper and lower epidermis, mesophyll, and vessel. Among the five species tested, C. kyllingia and P. conjugatum were the most tolerant to Pb and Hg.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahammad SJ, Sumithra S, Senthilkumar P. 2018. Mercury uptake and translocation by indigenous plants. Rasayan Journal Chemistry. 11(1): 1-12.

Andriya NA, Hamim H, Sulistijorini, Tridiati. 2019. The phytoremediation potential of non-edible oil-producing plants for gold mine tailings. Biodiversitas. 20(10): 2949-2957. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d201025

Angeles MD, Cuevas VC. 2018. Phytoremediation Potential of Paspalum conjugate Berg. and the Role of Compost Amendment in Rehabilitation of Soil Materials from High Copper-Containing Mine Tailings Ponds. Philippine Agricultural Scientist. 101(2): 206-215.

Atabayeva S, Nurmahanova A, Akhmetova A, Namuratova M, Asrandina S, Beisenova A, Aalbayeva R, Lee T. 2016. Anatomical peculiarities in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties under copper stress. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 48(4): 1399-1405.

Azevedo R, Rodriguez E. 2012. Review article: Phytotoxicity mercury in plants: A Review. Journal of Botany. 2012: 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/848614

Barcelo J, Doschenrieder CH. 2004. Structural and ultrastructural change in heavy metal exposed plant. Heidelberg (DE): Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-07743-6_9

[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik. 2017. Statistik lingkungan hidup Indonesia 2017. Jakarta (ID). Badan Pusat Statistik.

Chaney R, Brown S, Li YM, Angle JS, Homer F, Green C. 1995. Potential use of metal hyperaccumulators. Journal of Environment and Management. 3: 9-11.

Chanu LB, Gupta A. 2016. Phytoremediation of lead using Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. in hydroponic solution. Chemosphere. 156: 407-411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.05.001

Chen J, Shiyab S, Han FX, Monts DL, Waggoner CA, Yang ZM, Su Y. 2009. Bioaccumulation and physiological effects of mercury in Pteris vitata and Nephrolepis exaltata. Exotoxicology. 18: 110-121. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-008-0264-3

Dogan M, Kratas M, Aasim M. 2018. Cadmium and lead bioaccumulation potentials of an aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demerstum L.: a laboratory study. Ecotoxicology Environmental Safety. 148: 431-440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.10.058

Enstone DE, Peterson CA, Ma F. 2003. Root Endodermis and exodermis: structure, function, and responses to the environment. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation. 21: 335-351. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-003-0002-2

Fashola MO, Ngole-Jeme VM, Babalola OO. 2016. Review heavy metal pollution from gold mines: environmental effects and bacterial strategies for resistance. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 13: 1-20. https:// doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13111047

Fathia SD, Hamim H, Tridiati T. 2019. Morpho-physiology analysis of aquatic plants for phytoremediation of wastewater from gold mine wastewater treatment installation (IPALL). IOP Publishing. In: IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science. The 5th International Seminar on Sciences, 2019. https://doi.org/10. 1088/1755-1315/299/1/012060

Flora G, Gupta D, Tiwari A. 2012. Review article. Toxicity of lead: A review with recent updates. Interdisciplinary Toxicology. 5(2): 47-58. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10102-012-0009-2

Gajic G, Djurdjevic L, Kostic O, Jaric S, Mitrovic M, Pavlovic P. 2018. Ecological potential of plants for phytoremediation and ecorestoration of fly ash deposits and mine wastes. Frontiers in Environmental Sciece. 6(124): 1-24. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2018.00124

Gupta DK, Nicoloso FT, Schetinger MRC, Rossato LV, Perreira LB, Castro GY, Srivasta S, Tripathi RD. 2009. Antioxidant defense mechanism in hydroponically grown Zea mays seedlings under moderate lead stress. Journal of Hazardous Material. 172: 479-484. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.141

Gomes MP, Marques TCLLSM, Nogueira MOG, Soares AM. 2011. Ecophysiological and anatomical changes due to uptake and accumulation of heavy metal in Brachiaria decumbens. Scientia Agricola. 68(5): 566-573. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162011000500009

Hamim H, Miftahudin M, Setyaningsih L. 2018. Cellular and ultrastructure alteration of plant roots in response to metal stress. In Ratnadewi D and H. Hamim (Eds.). Plant Growth and Regulation: Alteration to Sustain Unfavourable Conditions. London (GB): IntechOpen. 21-41pp. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.79110

Hidayati N, Juhaeti T, Syarif F. 2009. Mercury and cyanide contamination in gold mine environment and possible solution of cleaning up by using phytoextraction. Hayati. 16(3): 88-94. https://doi.org/10.4308/hjb.16.3.88

Hilmi M, Hamim H, Sulistyaningsih YC, Taufikurahman. 2018. Growth, histochemical and physiological responses of non-edible oil producing plant (Reutalis trisperma) to gold mine tailings. Biodiversitas. 19(4): 1294-1302. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d190416

Hou X, Han H, Cai L, Liu A, Ma X, Zhou C, Wang G, Meng F. 2018. Pb stress effects on leaf chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidative enzyme activities and organic acid content of Pogonatherum criticum seedlings. Flora. 240: 82-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2018.01.006

Kumar A, Prasad MNV. 2018. Review Plant-lead interaction: transport, toxicity, tolerance, and detoxification mechanisms. Exotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 166: 401418. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.09.113

Kumar N, Bauddh K, Kumar S, Dwivedi N, Singh DP, Barman SC. 2013. Accumulation of metals in weed species grown on the soil contaminated with industrial waste and their phytoremediation potential. Ecology Engineering. 61: 491-495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.10.004

Latiff AAA, Karim ATA, Ahmad AS, Ridzuan MB, Yung-Tse H. 2012. Phytoremediation of Metals in Industrial Sludge by Cyperus Kyllingia-Rasiga, Asystassia Intrusa and Scindapsus Pictus Var Argyaeus Plant Species. International Journal of Integrated Engineering. 4(2): 1-8.

Lenti K, Fodor F, Boddi B. 2002. Mercury inhibits the activity of the NADPH: protochlorophyllidae oxidoreductase (POR). Photosynthetica. 40(1): 145-151. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020143602 973

Leung HM, Yue P, Sze SCW, Au CK, Cheung KC, Chan KL, Yung KLK, Li WC. 2019. The potential of Mikania micrantha (Chinese creeper) to hyperaccumulate heavy metals in soil contaminated by electronic waste. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 26(34): 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06771-x

Lichtenthaler HK. 1987. Chlorophylls and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods in Enzymology. 148: 350-382. https://doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(87)48036-1

Lux AA, Sottnikova A, Opatrna J, Greger M. 2004. Differences in structure of adventition roots in Salix clones with contrasting characteristic of cadmium accumulation an sensitivity. Physiologia Plantarum. 120: 537-545. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0031-9317.2004.0275.x

Malecka A, Piechalak A, Morkunas I, Tomaszewska B. 2008. Accumulation of lead in root cells of Pisum sativum. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 30: 629-637. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-008-0159-1

Melo HC, Castro EM, Soares AM, Melo LA, Alves JD. 2007. Anatomical and physiological alterations in Setaria anceps Stapf ex Messey and Paspalum paniculatum L. under water deficit conditions. Hoehnea. 34(2): 145-153. https://doi.org/10.1590/S2236-89062007000200003

Mohanty M, Patra HK. 2012. Phytoremediation potential of paragrass: an in situ approach for chromium contaminated soil. International Journal of Phytoremediation. 14(8): 796805. https://doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2011.619595

Patra M, Bhowmik N, Bandopadhyay B, Sharma A. 2004. Comparison of mercury, lead and arsenic with respect to genotoxic effect on plant system and development of genetic tolerance. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 52(3): 199-223. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2004.02.009

Pourrut B, Shahid M, Dumat C, Winterton P, Pinelli E. 2011. Lead Uptake, Toxicity, and Detoxification in Plants. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 213: 113-136. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/978-1-4419-9860-6_4

Quinet M, Vromman D, Clippe A, Bertin P, Lequeux H, Dufey I, Lutts S, Lefèvre I. 2012. Combined transcriptomic and physiological approaches reveal strong differences between short- and long-term response of rice (Oryza sativa) to iron toxicity. Plant Cell and Environment. 35(10): 1837-1859. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02521.x

Rascio N, Navarie-Izzo F. 2011. Heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants: how and why do they do it? and what makes them so interesting?. Plant Science. 180(2): 169-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2010.08.016

Rucińska -sobkowiak R. 2016. Water relations in plants subjected to heavy metal stresses. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 38: 257. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-016-2277-5

Sandalio LM, Dalurzo HC, Gömez M, Romero-Puertas MC, Rio LAD. 2001. Cadmium-Induced Changes in the Growth and Oxidative Metabolism of Pea Plants. Journal of Experimental Botany. 52(364): 2115-2126. https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/52.364.2115

Seregin IV, Kozhevnikova AD. 2011. Histochemical methods for detection of heavy metals and strontium in the tissues of higher plants. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology. 58(4):721-727. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1021443711040133

Shahid M, Khalid S, Abbas G, Shahid N, Nadeem M, Sabir M, Aslam M, Dumat C. 2015. Heavy Metal Stress and Crop Productivity. In: Hakeem KR (Ed.). Crop Production and Global Environmental Issues. Switzerland (CH). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-23162-4_1

Shiyab S, Chen J, Han FX, Monts DL, Matta FB, Gu M, Su Y, Masad MA. 2009. Mercury-induced oxidative stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Environmental Toxicology. 24: 462–471. https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.20450

Widyawati E. 2006. Bioremediasi bekas tambang batubara dengan sludge industri kertas untuk memacu revegetasi lahan. [Disertasi]. Bogor (ID): Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Yoon J, Cao X, Zhou Q, Ma LQ. 2006. Accumulation of Pb, Cu and Zn in native plants growing on a contaminated florida site. Science of the Total Environment. 368: 456-464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.01.016

Zhang W, Cai Y, Tung C, Ma LQ. 2002. Arsenic speciation and distribution in an arsenic hyperaccumulating plant. Science of the Total Environment. 300: 167-177. https://doi.org/10. 1016/S0048-9697(02)00165-1

How to Cite
Raharja, R. A., Hamim, H., Sulistyaningsih, Y. C., & Triadiati, T. (2020). Analisis Morfofisiologi, Anatomi, dan Histokimia pada Lima Spesies Tanaman Gulma sebagai Respons terhadap Merkuri dan Timbal. Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia, 25(3), 412-423. https://doi.org/10.18343/jipi.25.3.412