JIPI
Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Potensi dan Karakterisasi Fisiologis Bakteri Endofit Asal Tanaman Kakao Sehat sebagai Pemacu Pertumbuhan Benih Kakao

  • Andi Khaeruni Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Halu Oleo, Jl. HEA Mokodompit Kendari, 93232
  • Tanza Nirmala Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Halu Oleo, Jl. HEA Mokodompit Kendari, 93232
  • Waode Siti Anima Hisein Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Halu Oleo, Jl. HEA Mokodompit Kendari, 93232
  • Gusnawaty Gusnawaty Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Halu Oleo, Jl. HEA Mokodompit Kendari, 93232
  • Teguh Wijayanto Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Halu Oleo, Jl. HEA Mokodompit Kendari, 93232
  • Gusti Ayu Kade Sutariati Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Halu Oleo, Jl. HEA Mokodompit Kendari, 93232

Abstract

This study aimed to obtain endophytic bacterial isolates originated from healthy cacao plant, potential for plant-growth promoting of cacao seedlings. This study was carried out in the Phytopathology Laboratory Unit of the Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Halu Oleo University. This study was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD) using ten isolates of endophytic bacteria from healthy cocoa plants as treatments, plus a control treatment. The experiment was conducted in a screenhouse using seed treatment and planted in seedling boxes, containing sterile rice-husk charcoal as a growing medium. The result showed that  three endophytic bacteria tested (isolates 2RPR1, 2RWB2, and 5BRB3) were potential as plant growth-promoting of cocoa seedlings, because the isolates were able to increase seed germination up to 96.67%, relative growth rate up to 90-96.67%, increased plant height up to 47.85-67.17%, root dry weight up to 35.08-52.63%, and canopy dry weight up to 97.71-108.46%. The superiority of the three isolates were related to their abilities to fix nitrogen, dissolve phosphate, as well as to produce indole acetic acid.

 

Keywords: cacao, endophytic bacteria, plant growth-promoting agent, seed viability

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Akhtar MJ, Asghar HN, Shahzad K, Arshad M, 2009. Roleof plant growth promoting rhizobacteria appliedin combination with compostand mineral fertilizersto improve growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Pakistan Journal Botany. 41(1): 381-390.

[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik Sultra. 2015. Sulawesi Tenggara dalam Angka 2015. Kendari (ID): Badan Pusat Statistik Sultra.

Bhattacharyya PN, Jha DC. 2012. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) emergence in agriculture. World Journal Microbiology and Biotechnology. 28(4): 1327–1350. doi:10.1007/S11274-011-0979-9.

Duangpeng A, Phetcharat P, Chantapho S, Boonkantong N, Okoda N. 2012. The study and development of endophytic bacteria for enhancing organic rice growth. The Procedia Engineering. 32: 172–176.

Gaiero JR, Mccall CA, Thompson KA , Day NJ, Best AS, Dunfield KE. 2013. Inside the root microbiome: Bacterial root endophytes and plant growth promotion. American Journal of Botany. 100(9): 1738–1750. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1200572

Glickman E, Dessaux Y. 1995. A critical examination of specifity of the salkowski reagent of indolic compounds produced by phytopatogenic bacteria. Applied Enviroment Microbiology. 61: 793-796. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.61.2.793-796.1995

Guyasa IM, Sadimantara GR, Khaeruni A, Sutariati GAK. 2018. Isolation of Bacillus spp and Pseudomonas fluorescens from upland rice rhizosphere and its potential as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for local upland rice (Oryza sativa L.). Bioscience Research. 5(4): 3231-3239.

Hartono A. 2000. Pengaruh pupuk fosfor, bahan organik dan kapur terhadap pertumbuhan jerapan pada tanah masam latosol Darmaga. Jurnal Gakuryoku. 6(1): 73-78.

Hidayati U, Chaniago IA, Munif A, Siswanto, Santosa DA. 2014. Potensi kultur campuran bakteri endofit sebagai pemacu pertumbuhan bibit tanaman karet. Jurnal Penelitian Karet. 32(2): 129-138. https://doi.org/10.22302/jpk.v32i2.159

Hodges SC. 2013. Soilfertility Basics, Soil Science Extension North Carolina State University, Production of cocoa beans (Vol.XL). [internet]. Akses pada 15 Agustus 2018. Tersedia pada: http://www. plantstresscom/ articles/min_deficiency _i/soil_fertility.pdf. International Cocoa Organization. 2014.

Kandel SL, Joubert PM, Doty SL. 2017. Bacterial Endophyte Colonization and Distribution within Plants. Microorganisms. 5 (77): 1-26. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5040077

Khaeruni A. Sutariat GAK, Wahyuni S. 2010. Karakterisasi dan uji aktivitas bakteri rizosfer lahan ultisol sebagai pemacu pertumbuhan tanaman dan agensia hayati cendawan patogen tular tanah secara in vitro. Jurnal Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Tropika. 10(2): 123-130.

Khaeruni A, Wijayanto T, Darmansyah, Arini R, Sutariati GAK. 2019. Antagonistic activity of indigenous endophytic bacteria from cocoa plants against Phytophthora palmivora bult the cause of black pod rot disease in cocoa. Bioscience Research. 16(1): 272-280.

Lestari P, Suryadi Y, Susilowati DN, Priyatno TP, Samudra IM. 2015. Karakterisasi bakteri penghasil asam indol asetat dan pengaruhnya terhadap vigor benih padi. Berita Biologi. 14(1): 19-28.

Lopez BR, Ojanguren CT, Bacilio M, Mendoza A, Bashan Y. 2012. Endophytic bacteria of the rock-dwelling cactus Mammilaria flaileana affect plantgrowth and mobilization of elements from roct. Enviromental and Experimental Botany. 81: 26–38. https://doi:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2012.02.014.

Mehrab YHA, Rahmani G, Mohammadi N, Ayneband A. 2010. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria increase growth, yield and nitrogen fixation in Phaseolus Vulgaris. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 33(12): 1733-1743. https://doi.org/10.1080/019 04167.2010.503776

Munif A, Wibowo AR, Herliyana EN. 2015. Bakteri endofit dari tanaman kehutanan sebagai pemacu pertumbuhan tanaman tomat dan agens pengendali Meloidogyne spp. Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia. 11(6): 179-186. https://doi.org/10.14692/jfi.11.6.179

Murthi RS, Lisnawita, Oemry S. 2015. Potensi bakteri endofit dalam meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman tembakau yang terinfeksi nematoda puru akar (Meloidogyne spp.). Jurnal Agroteknologi. 4(1): 1881-1889.

Ponmurungan K, Sankaranarayanan A, Al-Dharbi NA. 2012. Biologica activities of plant growth promotion Azotobacter sp. isolat from vegetable crop rhizosphere soil. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology. 6(4): 1-10.

Rahma H, Zainal A, Surahman M, Sinaga MS, Giyanto. 2014. Potensi bakteri endofit dalam menekan penyakit layu stewart (Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii) pada tanaman jagung. Jurnal Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Tropika. 14(2): 121-137.

Rahman A, Bannigan A, Sulaman W, Pechter P, Blancaflor EB, Baskin TI. 2007. Auxin, action and growth of the Arabidopsis thaliana primary root. The Plant Journal. 50: 514-528. https://doi:10.1111/j.1365-313x.2007.3068.x

Rao SNS. 1994. Mikroorganisme Tanah dan Pertumbuhan Tanaman (Edisi kedua). Terjemahan Erawati Susilo. Jakarta (ID): Universitas Indonesia Press.

Resti ZT, Habazar D, Prima P, Nasrun. 2013. Skrining dan identifikasi isolat bakteri endofit untuk mengendalikan penyakit hawar daun bakteri pada bawang merah. Jurnal Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Tropika. 13(2): 167-178.

Saridewi LP, Prihatiningsih N, Djatmiko HA. 2020. Karakterisasi biokimia bakteri endofit akar terung sebagai pemacu pertumbuhan tanaman dan pengendali penyakit layu bakteri in planta. Jurnal Proteksi Tanaman Tropis. 1(1): 1-8. https://doi.org/10.19184/jptt.v1i1.15579

Sutariati GAK, Jusoff K, Sadimantara IGR, Khaeruni A, Muhidin, Meisanti. 2013. Efectiveness of bio-invigoration technologies on seed viability and vigor of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). World Applied Sciences Journal. 26: 31-36.

Thakuria D, Talukdar NC, Goswani C, Hazarika S, Boro RC, Khan MR. 2004. Characterization rhizosphere of bacteri from rhizosphere of rice grown in acid soils of Assam. Curren Science: 978-985.

Usuki F, Narisawa K. 2007. A Mutualistic Symbiosis Between A Darkseptate Endophytic Fungus, Heteroconium Ch Aetospira, and Anonmycorhizal Plant, Chinese Cabbage. Mycologia. 99(2): 175-184. https://doi.org/10.3852/mycologia.99.2.175

Published
2020-07-29
How to Cite
Khaeruni, A., Nirmala, T., Siti Anima Hisein, W., Gusnawaty, G., Wijayanto, T., & Kade Sutariati, G. A. (2020). Potensi dan Karakterisasi Fisiologis Bakteri Endofit Asal Tanaman Kakao Sehat sebagai Pemacu Pertumbuhan Benih Kakao. Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia, 25(3), 388-395. https://doi.org/10.18343/jipi.25.3.388