Erni Sofia Murtini, Nur Oktavia Suci Lestari


Innovation of protein source cookies using local raw material such as cowpea is important for diversification. The objective of the study was to formulate cowpea cookies that meet the protein source claim based on Codex Alimentarius Commissary (CAC) and BPOM regulations. Formulation was determined by linear programming with minimum protein limits of 5 g/100 g for CAC and 12 g/100 g for BPOM. There were 6 formula with one factor, i.e. the proportion of the germinated cowpea flour:wheat flour of 44.58:4.42, 46.58:2.42, 48.58:0.42, 7.60:41.40, 9.60:39.40, and 11.60:37.40. The study was arranged in Randomized Block Design (RBD) and repeated 4 times. The data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by DMRT with 95% confidence level. The best formulation was obtained in cookies made with the proportion of germinated cowpea flour:wheat flour of 48.58 g:0.42 g. Those cookies contained 12.55±0.15% protein, 3.79±0.14% water, 36.18±1.42% fat, 45.09% carbohydrate, had yellow color (L* 61.62±0.42; a* 5.64±0.09; b* 23.52±0.36), 1.35±0.03 N break strength, 583 Kcal calories and 0.25±0.01% sodium. One serving size of the cookies (25 g) was able to meet the %daily value for protein (5.23%), carbohydrate (3.5%), fat (13.5%), and energy (6.5%). The cookies can be qualified as protein source products based on BPOM RI regulation (minimal 12 g/100 g protein) and Codex Alimentarius regulation (minimal 5 g/100 g protein), and complied with SNI quality standard for cookies that require maximum 5% water content and at least 5% protein.


cookies; cowpea; germination; protein source claims

Full Text:



Adekunle OA, Mary AA. 2014. Evaluation of cookies produced from blends of wheat, cassava and cowpea flours. Int J Food Stud 3: 175-185. DOI: 10.7455/ijfs/3.2.2014.a4.

Alimi JP, Shittu TA, Oyelakin MO, Olagbaju AR, Sanu FT, Alimi JO, Abel OO, Ogundele BA, Ibitoye O, Ala BO, Ishola DT. 2016. Effect of cowpea flour inclusion on the storage characteristics of composite wheat-cowpea bread. J Agr Crop Res 4: 49-59.

Allrecipes. 2016. Easy sugar cookies. http://all [10 Oktober 2016].

[AOAC] Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official of Analitycal Chemist. AOAC Inc. Washington DC.

[Balitkabi] Balai Penelitian Tanaman Aneka Kacang dan Umbi. 2015. Kacang tunggak, komoditas potensial di lahan kering masam. http://balit [27 November 2016].

[BPOM] Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan Republik Indonesia. 2016. Pengawasan Klaim pada Label dan Iklan Pangan Olahan. BPOM. Jakarta.

[BPOM] Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan Republik Indonesia. 2015. Pengawasan Taka-ran Saji Pangan Olahan. BPOM. Jakarta.

[BSN] Badan Standardisasi Nasional. 2011. Biskuit (SNI 2973:2011). BSN. Jakarta.

Chinma CE, Alemede IC, Emelife IG. 2008. Physico-chemical and functional properties of some Nigerian cowpea varieties. Pak J Nutr 7: 186-190. DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2008.186.190.

Codex Stan (ISSN 0259-2916). 2007. Food Labelling (Fifth Edition). Electronic Publishing Policy and Support Branch FAO. Rome.

Devi CB, Kushwaha A, Kumar A. 2015. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). J Food Sci Technol 52: 6821-6827. DOI: 10.1007/s13197-015-1832-1.

Hamid S, Muzzafar S, Wani IA, Masoodi FA. 2015. Physicochemical and functional properties of two cowpea cultivars grown in temperate Indian climate. Food Sci Technol 1: 1-11. DOI: 10.108 0/23311 932.2015.1099418.

Herawati H. 2010. Potensi pengembangan produk pati tahan cerna sebagai pangan fungsional. J Litbang Pert 30: 31-37.

Ikuomola DS, Otutu OL, Oluniran DD. 2017. Quality assessment of cookies produced from wheat flour and malted barley (Hordeum vulgare) bran blends. Cogent Food Agric 3: 1-12. DOI: 10.108 0/23311932.2017.1293471.

Ismayanti M, Harjiono. 2015. Formulasi MPASI berbasis tepung kecambah kacang tunggak dan tepung jagung dengan metode linear programming. J Pangan Agroin 3: 996-1005

Khattab RY, Arntfield SD. 2009. Nutritional quality of legume seeds as affected by some physical treatments 2. Antinutritional factors. J Food Sci Technol 42: 1113–1118. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.200 9.02.004.

Mune MA, Samuel RM, Israel LM. 2013. Chemical compotition and nutritional evaluation of cow-pea protein concentrate. J Food Sci Technol 2: 035-043.

Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan RI (Nomor 75). 2013. Angka Kecukupan Gizi

yang Dianjurkan bagi Bangsa Indonesia. 6. Kemenkes RI. Jakarta.

Pradipta IBYV, Putri WDR. 2015. Pengaruh proporsi tepung terigu dan tepung kacang hijau serta subtitusi dengan tepung bekatul dalam biskuit. J Pangan Agroin 3: 793-802.

Qunyi T, Xiaoyu Z, Fang W, Jingjing T, Pinping Z, Jing Z. 2010. Effect of honey powder on dough rheology and bread quality. Food Res Int 43: 2284-2288. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2010.08.0 02.

Ritthiruangdej P, Parnbankled S, Donchedee S, Wongsagonsup R. 2011. Physical, chemical, textural and sensory properties of dried wheat noodles supplemented with unripe banana flour. Kasetsart J (Nat Sci) 45: 500–509.

Soetan, Oyewole. 2009. The need for adequate processing to reduce the anti-nutritional factors in plants used as human foods and animal feeds - a review. Afr J Food Sci 3: 223-232.

Syahputri DA, Wardani AK. 2015. Pengaruh fer-mentasi jali (Coix lacryma jobi-L) pada proses pembuatan tepung terhadap karakteristik fisik dan kimia cookies dan roti tawar. J Pangan Agroini 3: 984-995.

Tchiagam JBN, Bell JM, Antoine M, Nassourou, Njintang NY, Youmbi E.

Genetic analysis of seed proteins contents in cowpea (Vigna

unguiculata L. Walp.). Afr J Biotechnol 10: 3077-3086. DOI: 10.5897/AJB10.2469.

Thongram S, Tanwar B, Chauhan A, Kumar V. 2016. Physicochemical and organoleptic pro-perties of cookies incorporated with legume flours. Cogent Food Agric Res 14: 1539-1543. DOI: 10.1080/23311932.2016.1172389.

[USDA] United States Department of Agriculture Food Composition Databases. 2016. Cowpeas, common (blackeyes, crowder, southern), ma-ture seeds, raw. [10 oktober 2016].

Zohng H. 2013. Effect of Lipid Source on the Physical and Sensory Quality of Baked Products [All Graduate Theses and Disserta-tions, Paper 1504]. Logan. Nutrition and Food Sciences, Utah State University.


Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan

pISSN :   1979-7788

eISSN :   2087-751X

Visitor Statistic



Visitor Statistic

Visitor Statistic

Creative Commons License
This journal is published under the terms of the is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License