Hariyadi, Purwiyatno, Indonesia
Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 31 No. 1 (2008): Forum Pascasarjana - Articles
Palm oil contains carotenoid about 500-700 ppm. Epidemiology study showed that carotenoids are beneficial for health, but most of carotenoids are destructed and loss during purification of palm oil, so need to be modified to minimize the loss and destruction of carotenoids. One of the methods was to use NaOH to neutralize free fatty acid after degumming step. The aim of this research was to determine optimum condition of deacidification process of palm oil to minimize the destruction of carotenoids. This research used Central Composite Design (CCD). Response surface model was applied to see influence of treatment to rendemen, free fatty acid and carotenoids contents of neutralized palm oil (NPO) with three variables of temperature, time, and consentration of NaOH. This research showed the optimum condition of deacidification process of palm oil to minimize the destruction of carotenoids, i.e. temperature of 59oC, time 25 minutes, and NaOH 11.1% (16oBe). In this condition the content of NPO was 95%, with 0.16% of free fatty acid and total carotenoids of 390 ppm.
Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 32 No. 1 (2009): Forum Pascasarjana - Articles
Fermented was reported to have different physicochemical and functional properties to those of non fermented flour. The objective of this research was to study the effect of spontaneous fermentation to chemical and rheological properties of corn flour and to identifying correlation among parameters. Flour was prepared by spontaneous fermentation with variation of fermentation time (0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours). The result indicated that the increasing of corn grits fermentation time was decrease of protein, crude fiber, lipid, ash, starch and amylase content of corn flour. The increasing of protein content, reduction sugar, crude fiber, ash, bulk density and gelatinization time were decrease of gel strength. Gel strength will be promote with increasing of angle of repose and peak viscosity. Gel stickeness will decrease with increasing of amylosa: amylopecyin ratio and breakdown viscosity.
Key words: white corn, flour,fermentation, chemical, rheological