Pawitan, Hidayat, Indonesia

  • Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 16 No. 1 (1993): Forum Pascasarjana - Articles
    Prediction of runoff, sediment yield and their quality using ANSWERS model at Batujai reservoir area, West Nusa Tenggara
    Abstract  PDF
  • Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 32 No. 1 (2009): Forum Pascasarjana - Articles

    The aim of the research is to evaluate the effectiveness of micro fertigation system and application of cows fermented urine (uriferm) for chili (Capsicum annum sp.) Cultivation.  The micro fertigation system with 0.5 mm inside diameter micro-tubing is used to control the flow from outlets along lateral.  The lateral with 5/16 inch inside diameter is made of soft PVC hose.  The result of the research showed that the micro fertigation system is running well. Randomized block design with four replications are used for the field experiment.  There are four treatments i.e. conventional culture by watering can (A), uriferm fertigation (B), non uriferm fertigation (C), and Hartus formula fertigation (D).  The laboratory analysis showed that the properties of uriferm increase in composition compared to non uriferm and used successfully as nutrition.  The micro fertigation system showed better result compared to the watering can on variable observation of plant and root development of chili.  The field experiments showed that the micro fertigation system significantly reduced volume of water used by 49.5% and raised chili yield by 61.2% compared to watering can.  The uriferm fertigation (B) showed better result compared to other treatments on wet weight of chili and water productivity.  The total income from 390 m2 irrigated land with micro fertigation system was about Rp 2,961,700,00/season and  feasible to apply with B/C ratio =  1.51, IRR value = 27.49% and NPV = Rp 387,413.83 at discount rate 9% per annum.


    Key words: micro fertigation system, uriferm, chili, water productivity, small plots
    Abstract  PDF
  • Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 33 No. 2 (2010): Forum Pascasarjana - Articles

    The objective of this research is to develop a model of water table fluctuation on tidal lowland area of B/C type.  Modeling of water table is expected to support the agriculture development on tidal lowland area, especially on water management due to the important role of water management in the agriculture on tidal lowland area. The water table controls on the particular depth can support the farming system and avoid pyrite oxidation. The model of water table fluctuation which is developed in this research based on the ellipse concept. The developed model has been tested on the tidal lowland areas in P6-3N Delta Telang I, Banyuasin District, South Sumatra Province. The simulated model showed the promoting result in estimating the depth of water table on tidal lowland area of B/C type. The developed model could explain the proportion of water table depth variation between 89.5% up to 94.7% with standard error estimation varied from 0.029 to 0.042 meters. The model has high sensitivity to the parameter of the water level in the tertiary canals.


    Key words: modeling, water table, water management, tidal lowland area of B/C type
    Abstract  PDF
  • Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 31 No. 4 (2008): Forum Pascasarjana - Articles

    The field observation of this research was conducted from June 2005 to May 2007 in tropical rainforest at Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi.  The main objectives of this research were to study (i) the relationships between interception loss and rainfall properties and vegetation characters and to determine the dominant factors affected, (ii) the effect of rainfall interception on energy flux and mass transfer, and (iii) the dynamics of vertical energy flux under the forest and grass land. Rainfall interception was 36.34% of gross rainfall in 200 events, Depth rainfall and LAI factors had strong effects on rainfall interception.  The relationships could be expressed as Ic = 0.980+0.239P+0.035LAI (R2 = 0.78).  The output of this equation was compared with Gash model and the observation value showed that deviation of the equation was 1% and less than Gash model, so that equation gave as good result as Gash model gave.  By considering the data requirements and calculation procedures it was concluded that this equation is applicable for interception prediction.  Land use type had effects on radiative and energy balance.  Net radiation (Rn) in the forest was 10.66 MJ/m2/day and higher than in the grass land where incident global radiation was similar.  Vertical latent heat flux in the forest was 9.53 MJ/m2/day or 89.40% Rn in rainy day and 8.41 MJ/m2/day or 74.56% Rn in dry day, on the other hand, in the grass land, sensible heat flux was higher than latent heat flux of all weather condition.  Direct effect of rainfall interception on energy flux and mass transfer it is needed latent heat about 9.0 MJ/m2/rainy day to evaporate the rain intercepted 3.69 mm/rainy day.  Effect of rainfall interception had positive correlation with  latent heat flux and the negative correlation  with sensible heat flux.


    Key words: interception, energy, mass and tropical rainforest

    Abstract  PDF
  • Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 31 No. 3 (2008): Forum Pascasarjana - Articles

    Groundwater in the District of Wajo is stored in Siwa-Pompanua basin covering an area of 93,900 ha and discharge of around 379 millions m3/yr.  The groundwater is utilized to irrigate rain-fed rice fields privately by farmers by means of wells.  The distance between wells and pumping rate are designed without considering the characteristics of the aquifer and adequate irrigation management so that damage in environment might occur and consequently farming might not be sustainable.  A research was conducted with the objectives to study the aquifer characteristics and to develop environmentally friendly groundwater management.  Mathematical models were developed by combining equations of conservation of fluid mass (continuity equations) and Darcy’s law, whereas models of groundwater management were based on crop water requirement and aquifer characteristics.  Test of the model resulted in coefficient of determination equal to 0.848 for the prediction of the drawdown groundwater head.  The result of the model optimization indicated the optimum discharge of each of the wells was different.  One of the wells had a the biggest discharge of 1,268.33 m3/day irrigating 27.58 ha and one other  of the wells had a the smallest discharge of 279.54 m3/day irrigating 6.08 ha of paddy fields based on the irrigation water requirement of 45.99 m3/  The reasonable minimum area (ha) determined with equation of power function in x, where x are irrigated hours per season.  For one of planting season/yr, the coefficients of the power (α) equal to 0.0123 and the power functions (β) equal to 0.7247, while for two of planting season/yr with α equal to 0.0047 and β equal to 0.8413.


    Key words: sustainable groundwater utilization, paddy field irrigation, groundwater management model
    Abstract  PDF
  • Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 34 No. 1 (2011): Forum Pascasarjana - Articles

    One major river flowing through Bekasi City is Bekasi river. Total extent of the Bekasi watershed is about 39.045 ha, in 2002 with rainfall of 250 mm for 8 hours caused about 138 ha flooded in residents area for 2-3 days in Bekasi City, more extremely in 2005 with rainfall only 127 mm  for 6 hours caused about 164 ha flooded in residents area for 3 days.  This evidence showed that flood problem in Bekasi City is become worse, and seem to be more horrifying in the future. Therefore, the flood problem needs an extremely great attention.  The objectives of the research is (1) analysis watershed condition; (2) analysis of the causes of flood over Bekasi City from the perpective of hydrology and hydraulic; (3) plan of Bekasi watershed management to reduce flood risk in Bekasi City.  To obtain the purposes of this research, the method of analysis is devided into four main subjects: (1) analysis of watershed condition using SCS method; (2) hydrology analysis using hydrology modeling HEC-HMS; (3) river flow capacity using hydraulic modeling HEC-RAS and (4) plan of scenarios to reduce flood risk.  There are four scenarios to overcome the flood problems: (1) similarly with government plan 2010;(2) managing Bekasi watershed area with conservation tillage; (3) build water retarded structure entire of  watershed and;(4) combination of second and third scenarios.  The research results shown that river flow capacity only 462 m3/s is not enough to flow the discharges, otherwise the land use is change and increasing the run off in upstream.  Based on the problems, it is expected to overcome the flood problem by managing Bekasi watershed area with conservation tillage and build water retarded structure.  It will reduce 28.58% of the discharge run off in 2020.


    Key words: flood, land use changing, watershed management

    Abstract  PDF