Pemulihan Komunitas Karang Keras Pasca Pemutihan Karang di Amed Bali

Omega Raya Simarangkir, Fredinan Yulianda, Mennofatria Boer


Climate change is now recognized as one of the greatest threats to worldwide coral reefs with one of the most serious and immediate threats of mass coral bleaching associated with increasing sea temperatures. Coral bleaching occurred in a few coral reefs throughout the world in 2010. Coral reef in Amed’s coastal area was the one of the reefs that experienced and affected by coral bleeching incident. This study aims to assess recovery of hard coral community in post-bleaching in 2010. A survey method was used to collect primary data. Data sets also supported by secondary data. This study results were hard coral community recovered in 2013, as its percentage cover increased up to 49.00%. However, macroalgae decreased up to 0.67%. Hard coral recruitment in 2013 increased up to 21 individual/m2.


Amed; coral bleaching; hard coral; macroalgae; recovery

Full Text:



Berumen ML, Pratchett MS. 2006. Recovery without resilience: persistent disturbance and long-term shifts in the structure of fish and coral communities at Tiahura Reef, Moorea. Coral Reefs. 25(4): 647-653.

Brown BE, Suharsono. 1990. Damage and recovery of coral reefs affected by El Nino related seawater warming in the Thousand Island, Indonesia. Coral Reefs. 8(4): 163-170.

Coral Reef Watch. 2013. Coral triangle coral bleaching data products., Akses tanggal 24 Juni 2013.

Diaz PG, McCook L. 2008. Makroalgae (seaweeds) in China (ed) the State of the Great Barrier Reef On-Line. Townsville (AU): Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

[DISBUDPAR] Dinas Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata Kabupaten Karangasem. 2012. Buku data kepariwisataan Kabupaten Karangasem tahun 2012. Bali (ID): Disbudpar.

Douglas AE. 2003. Review coral bleaching-how and why?. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 46(4): 385-392.

English S, Wilkinson C, Baker V. 1994. Survey manual for tropical marine resources (2nd Edition). Asean-Australia Marine Science Project. Townsville (AU): Australia Institute of Marine Science.

Golbuu Y, Victor S, Penland E, Idip D, Emaurois C, Okaji K, Yukihira H, Iwase A, Woesik RV. 2007. Palau’s coral reefs show differential habitat recovery following the 1998-bleaching event. Coral Reefs. 26(2): 319-332.

Hill J, Wilkinson C. 2004. Methods for ecological of coral reefs. A Resource for Managers, Ver 1. Townsville (AU): Australian Institute of Marine Science.

Hoegh-Guldberg O. 1999. Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world’s coral reefs. Marine and Freshwater Research. 50(8): 839-866.

Hughes TP, Rodrigues MJ, Bellwood DR, Ceccarelli D, Hoegh-Guldberg O, McCook L, Moltschaniwskyj N, Pratchett MS, Steneck RS, Willis B. 2007. Phase shifts, herbivory, and the resilience of coral reefs to climate change. Current Biology. 17(4): 360-365.

Jompa J, McCook LJ. 2002. The effects of nutrient and herbivory on competition between a hard coral (Porites Cylindrica) and a brown alga (Lobophora variegata). Limnology and Oceanography. 47(2): 527-534.

Marshall PA, Schuttenberg H. 2006. A reef manager’s guide to coral bleaching. Townsville (AU): Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

McClanahan TR, Muthiga NA, Mangi S. 2001. Coral and Algal changes after the 1998 coral bleaching: interaction with reef management and herbivores on Kenyan reefs. Coral Reefs. 19(4): 380-391.

Nybakken JW. 1992. Biologi laut: suatu pendekatan ekologis. Diterjemahkan oleh Eidman HM, Koesoebiono, Bengen DG, Hutomo M, Sukardjo S. 1992. Jakarta (ID): PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Obura DO, Grimsditch G. 2009. Resilience assessment of coral reefs-assessment protocol for coral reefs, focusing on coral bleaching and thermal stress. IUCN Working Group on Climate Change and Coral Reefs. Gland (CH): IUCN.

[RCFI] Reef Check Foundation Indonesia. 2011. Bali lombok reef resilience report-2011. Bali (ID): RCFI.

[RCFI] Reef Check Foundation Indonesia. 2012. Integrasi sains dan pengelolaan AMED, Karangasem Bali. Bali (ID): RCFI.

Siringoringo RM. 2007. Pemutihan karang dan beberapa penyakit karang. Oseana. 32(4): 29-37.

Suharsono. 1998. Condition of coral reef resources in Indonesia. Jurnal Pesisir dan Lautan. 1(2): 44-52.

Suharsono. 2010. Jenis-jenis karang di Indonesia. Coremap Program. Jakarta (ID): LIPI Press.

Veron JEN, Terence JD. 2000. Coral and Coral Communities of Lord Howe Island Part 30. Townsville (AU): Australian Institute of Marine Science.

Wilkinson CR. 2000. Status of coral reefs of the world: 2000. Townsville (AU): Australian Institute of Marine Science.

Wilkinson CR. 2008. Status of coral reefs of the world: 2008. Townsville (AU): Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Center.


View JIPI Stats


   Creative Commons License

This journal is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Editorial Office: Institute for Research and Community Services (LPPM), Andi Hakim Nasoetion Building, 5th Floor, Jl. Raya Darmaga, IPB Darmaga Campus, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia 16680, Telp/Fax: +62251-8622323, email:;