Respons Agronomi Tiga Varietas Ubi Kayu pada Berbagai Tingkat Kadar Air Tanah

. Suwarto, Eko Sulistyono, Giansar Prastowo


Cassava has been cultivated in almost the all region of Indonesia as a raw material of food, feed, and industries.  The productivity of cassava was varied among the region due to the variation of varieties used and growth environment, especially rainfall or water availability. Water deficit or drought stress will decrease the growth and yield of cassava.  Selecting tolerant variety to drought will be important to get high productivity. An experimental pot in the greenhouse has been conducted to know the growth and yield response to drought. Three varieties of cassava i.e Adira-1, Gajah, and Mangu were planted in the pot at three level of soil moisture content (SMC) 40-60, 60-80, and 80-100% of field capacity (FC). The cassava growth traits were influenced by SMC starting at 6 weeks after planting (WAP) for a number of leaves, at 8 WAP for stem girth, at 10 WAP for plant height, at 14 WAP for lobus width, and 15 WAP  for lobus length.  Root, stem, and leaves dry weight in the SMC of 40-60% FC were 64.4; 43.98, and 31.19% of the dry weight in 80-00% FC. Roots yield in the soil moisture content of 40-60% FC decreased by 76.2% and in the SMC of 40-60%, FC decreased by 38.4% compared to in the SMC of 80-100% FC. The water use efficiency and roots yield of Gajah variety were highest.


drought, field capacity, water deficit, water use efficiency

Full Text:



Aina OO, Dixon AG, Akinrinde EA. 2007. Effect of soil moisture stress on growth and yield of cassava in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science. 10(18): 3085-3090.

Alves AAC, Setter TL. 2000. Response of cassava to water deficit: leaf area growth and abscisic acid. Crop Science Society of America. 40(1): 131137.

Alves AAC. 2002. Cassava: botany and physiology. In: Hillocks RJ, Thres JM, and Bellotti A, (Eds) Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization. Wallingford (US): CABI Publishing. pp. 67-89.

[Balitkabi] Balai Penelitian Tanaman Aneka Kacang dan Umbi. 2017. Deskripsi varietas ubi kayu. Malang (ID): Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Kementerian Pertanian.

[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik. 2017. Produktivitas Ubi Kayu Tahun 1993-2015. Jakarta (ID): Badan Pusat Statistik.

Blum A. 2009. Effective use of water (EUW) and not water-use efficiency (WUE) is the target of crop yield improvement under drought stress. Field Crops Research. 112(2009): 119-123.

Darwati I, Rasita SMD, Hernani. 2002. Respon daun ungu (Graptophyllum pictum L.) terhadap cekaman air. Industrial Crop Research Journal. 8(3): 73-75.

Duque LO, Setter TL. 2013. Cassava response to water deficit in deep pots: root and shoot growth, ABA, and carbohydrate reserves in stems, leaves and storage roots. Tropical Plant Biology. 6(4): 199-209.

Kurniasari AM, Adisyahputra, Rosman R. 2010. Pengaruh kekeringan pada tanah bergaram NaCl terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman nilam. Buletin Litro. 21(1): 18-27.

Lahai MT, Ekanayake IJ. 2009. Accumulation and distribution of dry matter in relation to root yield of cassava under a fluctuating water table in inland valley ecology. African Journal of Biotechnology. 8(19): 4895-4905.

Li J, Chang Z, Jiao F, Bai X, Zhang D, Zhai R. 2017. Influence of drought stress on photosynthetic characteristics and protective enzymes of potato at seedling stage. Journal of The Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences. 16(1): 82-88.

Odubanyo OO, Olufayo AA, Oguntunde PB. 2011. Water use, growth, and yield of drip irrigated cassava in a humid tropical environment. Soil and Water Res. 6: 10-20.

Okogbenin E, Ekanayake IJ, Porto MCM. 2003. Genotypic variability in adaptation responses of selected clones of cassava to drought stress in the Sudan savanna zone of Nigeria. Journal Agronomi Crop Scince. 189: 376-389.

Okogbenin E, Setter TL, Ferguson M, Mutegi R, Cebalos H, Olasanmi B, Fregene M. 2013. Phenotypic approaches to drought in cassava: review. Article. Frontiers in Physiology Front. Plant Physiology.

Rosadi RAB, Afandi, Senge M, Ito K, Adomako JT. 2007. The Effect of water deficit in typecal soil types on the yield and water requirement of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in Indonesia. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly (JARQ). 41(1): 47-52.


View JIPI Stats


   Creative Commons License

This journal is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Editorial Office: Institute for Research and Community Services (LPPM), Andi Hakim Nasoetion Building, 5th Floor, Jl. Raya Darmaga, IPB Darmaga Campus, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia 16680, Telp/Fax: +62251-8622323, email:;